Bowling A, Seetai S, Morris R, Ebrahim S. Quality of life among older people with poor functioning. The influence of perceived control over life. Age Ageing. 2007;36:310–5.
Tak E, Kuiper R, Chorus A, Hopman-Rock M. Prevention of onset and progression of basic ADL disability by physical activity in community dwelling older adults: a meta-analysis. Ageing Res Rev. 2013;12:329–38.
Vogel T, Brechat PH, Lepretre PM, Kaltenbach G, Berthel M, Lonsdorfer J. Health benefits of physical activity in older patients: a review. Int J Clin Pract. 2009;63:303–20.
Windle G, Hughes D, Linck P, Russell I, Woods B. Is exercise effective in promoting mental well-being in older age? A systematic review. Aging Ment Health. 2010;14:652–69.
Paganini-Hill A, Greenia DE, Perry S, Sajjadi SA, Kawas CH, Corrada MM. Lower likelihood of falling at age 90+ is associated with daily exercise a quarter of a century earlier: the 90+ study. Age Ageing. 2017;46:951–7.
Park SH, Han KS, Kang CB. Effects of exercise programs on depressive symptoms, quality of life, and self-esteem in older people: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Appl Nurs Res. 2014;27:219–26.
Tas U, Steyerberg EW, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, Hofman A, Koes BW, Verhagen AP. Age, gender and disability predict future disability in older people: the Rotterdam study. BMC Geriatr. 2011;11:22.
Nuesch E, Pablo P, Dale CE, Prieto-Merino D, Kumari M, Bowling A, et al. Incident disability in older adults: prediction models based on two British prospective cohort studies. Age Ageing. 2015;44:275–82.
Den Ouden ME, Schuurmans MJ, Mueller-Schotte S, van der Schouw YT. Identification of high-risk individuals for the development of disability in activities of daily living. A ten-year follow-up study. Exp Gerontol. 2013;48:437–43.
Van Dyck D, Cardon G, De Bourdeaudhuij I. Longitudinal changes in physical activity and sedentary time in adults around retirement age: what is the moderating role of retirement status, gender and educational level? BMC Public Health. 2016;16:1125.
Engberg E, Alen M, Kukkonen-Harjula K, Peltonen JE, Tikkanen HO, Pekkarinen H. Life events and change in leisure time physical activity: a systematic review. Sports Med. 2012;42:433–47.
Barnett I, van Sluijs EM, Ogilvie D. Physical activity and transitioning to retirement: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2012;43:329–36.
Feinglass J, Song J, Semanik P, Lee J, Manheim L, Dunlop D, et al. Association of functional status with changes in physical activity: insights from a behavioral intervention for participants with arthritis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2012;93:172–5.
Collins GS, Reitsma JB, Altman DG, Moons KG. Transparent reporting of a multivariable prediction model for individual prognosis or diagnosis (TRIPOD): the TRIPOD statement. BMC Med. 2015;13:1.
Helbostad JL, Vereijken B, Becker C, Todd C, Taraldsen K, Pijnappels M, et al. Mobile health applications to promote active and healthy ageing. Sensors. 2017;17:622.
Denkinger MD, Franke S, Rapp K, Weinmayr G, Duran-Tauleria E, Nikolaus T, et al. Accelerometer-based physical activity in a large observational cohort--study protocol and design of the activity and function of the elderly in Ulm (ActiFE Ulm) study. BMC Geriatr. 2010;10:50.
Steptoe A, Breeze E, Banks J, Nazroo J. Cohort profile: the English longitudinal study of ageing. Int J Epidemiol. 2013;42:1640–8.
Ferrucci L, Bandinelli S, Benvenuti E, Di Iorio A, Macchi C, Harris TB, et al. Subsystems contributing to the decline in ability to walk: bridging the gap between epidemiology and geriatric practice in the InCHIANTI study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000;48:1618–25.
Huisman M, Poppelaars J, van der Horst M, Beekman AT, Brug J, van Tilburg TG, et al. Cohort profile: the longitudinal aging study Amsterdam. Int J Epidemiol. 2011;40:868–76.
Schaap LA, Peeters GM, Dennison EM, Zambon S, Nikolaus T, Sanchez-Martinez M, et al. European project on OSteoArthritis (EPOSA): methodological challenges in harmonization of existing data from five European population-based cohorts on aging. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2011;12:272.
Katz S, Downs TD, Cash HR, Grotz RC. Progress in development of the index of ADL. Gerontologist. 1970;10:20–30.
Lawton MP, Brody EM. Assessment of older people: self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. Gerontologist. 1969;9:179–86.
Stel VS, Pluijm SM, Deeg DJ, Smit JH, Bouter LM, Lips P. Functional limitations and poor physical performance as independent risk factors for self-reported fractures in older persons. Osteoporos Int. 2004;15:742–50.
Stel VS, Pluijm SM, Deeg DJ, Smit JH, Bouter LM, Lips P. A classification tree for predicting recurrent falling in community-dwelling older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003;51:1356–64.
Radloff LS, Teri L. Use of the CES-D with older adults. Clin Gerontol. 1986;5:119–36.
Bjelland I, Dahl AA, Haug TT, Neckelmann D. The validity of the hospital anxiety and depression scale. An updated literature review. J Psychosom Res. 2002;52:69–77.
Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR. “Mini-mental state”. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res. 1975;12:189–98.
Ofstedal MB, Herzog AR. Documentation of cognitive functioning measures in the health and retirement study. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan; 2005.
Van Buuren S, Groothuis-Oudshoorn K. Mice: multivariate imputation by chained equations in R. J Stat Softw. 2011;45:67.
White IR, Royston P, Wood AM. Multiple imputation using chained equations: issues and guidance for practice. Stat Med. 2011;30:377–99.
Rubin DB. Multiple imputation for non-response in surveys. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1987.
Debray TP, Moons KG, Ahmed I, Koffijberg H, Riley RD. A framework for developing, implementing, and evaluating clinical prediction models in an individual participant data meta-analysis. Stat Med. 2013;32:3158–80.
Harrell FE Jr, Lee KL, Mark DB. Multivariable prognostic models: issues in developing models, evaluating assumptions and adequacy, and measuring and reducing errors. Stat Med. 1996;15:361–87.
Steyerberg EW. Clinical prediction models: a practical approach to development, validation, and updating. New York, NY: Springer; 2009.
Sohl E, Heymans MW, de Jongh RT, den Heijer M, Visser M, Merlijn T, et al. Prediction of vitamin D deficiency by simple patient characteristics. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;99:1089–95.
International Working Group on Chest Pain in Primary Care, Aerts M, Minalu G, Bosner S, Buntinx F, Burnand B, et al. Pooled individual patient data from five countries were used to derive a clinical prediction rule for coronary artery disease in primary care. J Clin Epidemiol. 2017;81:120–8.
Marshall A, Altman DG, Holder RL, Royston P. Combining estimates of interest in prognostic modelling studies after multiple imputation: current practice and guidelines. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2009;9:57.
Debray TP, Riley RD, Rovers MM, Reitsma JB, Moons KG. Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analyses of diagnostic and prognostic modeling studies: guidance on their use. PLoS Med. 2015;12:e1001886.
Debray TP, Vergouwe Y, Koffijberg H, Nieboer D, Steyerberg EW, Moons KG. A new framework to enhance the interpretation of external validation studies of clinical prediction models. J Clin Epidemiol. 2015;68:279–89.
Sullivan LM, Massaro JM, D'Agostino RB Sr. Presentation of multivariate data for clinical use: the Framingham study risk score functions. Stat Med. 2004;23:1631–60.
Penninx BW, Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L, Simonsick EM, Deeg DJ, Wallace RB. Depressive symptoms and physical decline in community-dwelling older persons. JAMA. 1998;279:1720–6.
Fried LP, Tangen CM, Walston J, Newman AB, Hirsch C, Gottdiener J, Seeman T, Tracy R, Kop WJ, Burke G, McBurnie MA. Frailty in older adults: evidence for a phenotype. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001;56:M146–56.
Clegg A, Young J, Iliffe S, Rikkert MO, Rockwood K. Frailty in elderly people. Lancet. 2013;381:752–62.
Gill TM, Gahbauer EA, Murphy TE, Han L, Allore HG. Risk factors and precipitants of long-term disability in community mobility: a cohort study of older persons. Ann Intern Med. 2012;156:131–40.
Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L, Pieper CF, Leveille SG, Markides KS, Ostir GV, et al. Lower extremity function and subsequent disability: consistency across studies, predictive models, and value of gait speed alone compared with the short physical performance battery. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2000;55:M221–31.
Simonsick EM, Newman AB, Visser M, Goodpaster B, Kritchevsky SB, Rubin S, et al. Mobility limitation in self-described well-functioning older adults: importance of endurance walk testing. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008;63:841–7.
Botoseneanu A, Allore HG, Mendes de Leon CF, Gahbauer EA, Gill TM. Sex differences in concomitant trajectories of self-reported disability and measured physical capacity in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2016;71:1056–62.
Baxter S, Johnson M, Payne N, Buckley-Woods H, Blank L, Hock E, et al. Promoting and maintaining physical activity in the transition to retirement: a systematic review of interventions for adults around retirement age. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2016;13:12.
Werkman A, Hulshof PJ, Stafleu A, Kremers SP, Kok FJ, Schouten EG, et al. Effect of an individually tailored one-year energy balance programme on body weight, body composition and lifestyle in recent retirees: a cluster randomised controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:110.
Steyerberg EW, Uno H, Ioannidis JPA, van Calster B, Ukaegbu C, Dhingra T, et al. Poor performance of clinical prediction models: the harm of commonly applied methods. J Clin Epidemiol. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2017.11.013.
Ferrucci L, Cooper R, Shardell M, Simonsick EM, Schrack JA, Kuh D. Age-related change in mobility: perspectives from life course epidemiology and Geroscience. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2016;71:1184–94.
Shumway-Cook A, Guralnik JM, Phillips CL, Coppin AK, Ciol MA, Bandinelli S, et al. Age-associated declines in complex walking task performance: the walking InCHIANTI toolkit. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007;55:58–65.