Stevens JA, Mahoney JE, Ehrenreich H. Circumstances and outcomes of falls among high risk community-dwelling older adults. Inj Epidemiol. 2014;1:5. https://doi.org/10.1186/2197-1714-1-5.
Tinetti ME, Williams CS. Falls, injuries due to falls, and the risk of admission to a nursing home. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1279–84. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199710303371806.
McCrum C, Gerards MHGG, Karamanidis K, Zijlstra W, Meijer K. A systematic review of gait perturbation paradigms for improving reactive stepping responses and falls risk among healthy older adults. Eur Rev Aging Phys Act. 2017;14:3. https://doi.org/10.1186/s11556-017-0173-7.
Delfi G, Al Bochi A, Dutta T. A scoping review on minimum foot clearance measurement: sensing modalities. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18:10848. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010848.
Timsina LR, Willetts JL, Brennan MJ, Marucci-Wellman H, Lombardi DA, Courtney TK, et al. Circumstances of fall-related injuries by age and gender among community-dwelling adults in the United States. PLoS ONE. 2017;12: e0176561. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176561.
Roeles S, Rowe PJ, Bruijn SM, Childs CR, Tarfali GD, Steenbrink F, et al. Gait stability in response to platform, belt, and sensory perturbations in young and older adults. Med Biol Eng Compu. 2018;56:2325–35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11517-018-1855-7.
Grabiner MD, Crenshaw JR, Hurt CP, Rosenblatt NJ, Troy KL. Exercise-based fall prevention. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2014;42:161–8. https://doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000023.
Rieger MM, Papegaaij S, Steenbrink F, van Dieën JH, Pijnappels M. Perturbation-based gait training to improve daily life gait stability in older adults at risk of falling: protocol for the REACT randomized controlled trial. BMC Geriatr. 2020;20:167. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-020-01566-z.
Nørgaard JE, Andersen S, Ryg J, Stevenson AJT, Andreasen J, Danielsen MB, et al. Effects of treadmill slip and trip perturbation-based balance training on falls in community-dwelling older adults (STABILITY): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open. 2022;12: e052492. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-052492.
Maki BE, Mcilroy WE, Fernie GR. Change-in-support reactions for balance recovery. IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag. 2003;22:20–6. https://doi.org/10.1109/MEMB.2003.1195691.
Roman de Mettelinge T, Calders P, Danneels E, Geeroms S, Du Four C, Cambier D. Does footwear matter when performing spatiotemporal gait analysis among older women? J Geriatr Phys Ther. 2015;38:155–61. https://doi.org/10.1519/JPT.0000000000000052.
Hollander K, Petersen E, Zech A, Hamacher D. Effects of barefoot vs. shod walking during indoor and outdoor conditions in younger and older adults. Gait Posture. 2022;95:284–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2021.04.024.
Franklin S, Grey MJ, Heneghan N, Bowen L, Li F-X. Barefoot vs common footwear: a systematic review of the kinematic, kinetic and muscle activity differences during walking. Gait Posture. 2015;42:230–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2015.05.019.
Hollander K, van der Zwaard BC, de Villiers JE, Braumann K-M, Venter R, Zech A. The effects of being habitually barefoot on foot mechanics and motor performance in children and adolescents aged 6–18 years: study protocol for a multicenter cross-sectional study (Barefoot LIFE project). J Foot Ankle Res. 2016;9:36. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13047-016-0166-1.
Menant JC, Steele JR, Menz HB, Munro BJ, Lord SR. Optimizing footwear for older people at risk of falls. J Rehab Res Dev. 2008;45:1167. https://doi.org/10.1682/JRRD.2007.10.0168.
Robbins S, Waked E, McClaran J. Proprioception and stability: foot position awareness as a function of age and footware. Age Ageing. 1995;24:67–72. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/24.1.67.
Ramanathan AK, Parish EJ, Arnold GP, Drew TS, Wang W, Abboud RJ. The influence of shoe sole’s varying thickness on lower limb muscle activity. Foot Ankle Surg. 2011;17:218–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fas.2010.07.003.
Menant JC, Steele JR, Menz HB, Munro BJ, Lord SR. Effects of footwear features on balance and stepping in older people. Gerontology. 2008;54:18–23. https://doi.org/10.1159/000115850.
Petersen E, Zech A, Hamacher D. Walking barefoot vs. with minimalist footwear – influence on gait in younger and older adults. BMC Geriatrics. 2020;20:88. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-020-1486-3.
Cudejko T, Gardiner J, Akpan A, D’Août K. Minimal shoes improve stability and mobility in persons with a history of falls. Sci Rep. 2020;10:21755. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78862-6.
Moon Y, Wajda DA, Motl RW, Sosnoff JJ. Stride-time variability and fall risk in persons with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler Int. 2015;2015:1–7. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/964790.
Ma L, Mi T-M, Jia Q, Han C, Chhetri JK, Chan P. Gait variability is sensitive to detect Parkinson’s disease patients at high fall risk. Int J Neurosci. 2022;132:888–93. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207454.2020.1849189.
Frenkel-Toledo S, Giladi N, Peretz C, Herman T, Gruendlinger L, Hausdorff JM. Effect of gait speed on gait rhythmicity in Parkinson’s disease: variability of stride time and swing time respond differently. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2005;2:23. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-0003-2-23.
Roos PE, Dingwell JB. Influence of simulated neuromuscular noise on movement variability and fall risk in a 3D dynamic walking model. J Biomech. 2010;43:2929–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2010.07.008.
Hausdorff JM, Rios DA, Edelberg HK. Gait variability and fall risk in community-living older adults: a 1-year prospective study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001;82:1050–6. https://doi.org/10.1053/apmr.2001.24893.
Pieruccini-Faria F, Montero-Odasso M. Obstacle negotiation, gait variability, and risk of falling: results from the “gait and brain study.” J Gerontol Series A. 2019;74:1422–8. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/gly254.
Johansson J, Nordström A, Nordström P. Greater fall risk in elderly women than in men is associated with increased gait variability during multitasking. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2016;17:535–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2016.02.009.
Kroneberg D, Elshehabi M, Meyer AC, Otte K, Doss S, Paul F, et al. Less is more – estimation of the number of strides required to assess gait variability in spatially confined settings. Front Aging Neurosci. 2019;10:1–13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2018.00435.
Amira AS. Effect of robotic assisted gait training on functional and psychological improvement in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury. J Novel Physiother Phys Rehab. 2017;6:083–6. https://doi.org/10.17352/2455-5487.000053.
Matsas A, Taylor N, McBurney H. Knee joint kinematics from familiarised treadmill walking can be generalised to overground walking in young unimpaired subjects. Gait Posture. 2000;11:46–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0966-6362(99)00048-X.
Meyer C, Killeen T, Easthope CS, Curt A, Bolliger M, Linnebank M, et al. Familiarization with treadmill walking: how much is enough? Sci Rep. 2019;9:5232. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-41721-0.
Arnold BJW, Weeks BK, Horan SA. An examination of treadmill running familiarisation in barefoot and shod conditions in healthy men. J Sports Sci. 2019;37:5–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2018.1479533.
Ren X, Lutter C, Kebbach M, Bruhn S, Yang Q, Bader R, et al. Compensatory responses during slip-induced perturbation in patients with knee osteoarthritis compared with healthy older adults: an increased risk of falls? Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2022;10:1–13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2022.893840.
van den Bogert AJ, Geijtenbeek T, Even-Zohar O, Steenbrink F, Hardin EC. A real-time system for biomechanical analysis of human movement and muscle function. Med Biol Eng Compu. 2013;51:1069–77. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11517-013-1076-z.
Winter DA, Sidwall HG, Hobson DA. Measurement and reduction of noise in kinematics of locomotion. J Biomech. 1974;7:157–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9290(74)90056-6.
Zeni JA, Richards JG, Higginson JS. Two simple methods for determining gait events during treadmill and overground walking using kinematic data. Gait Posture. 2008;27:710–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2007.07.007.
Moon Y, Sung J, An R, Hernandez ME, Sosnoff JJ. Gait variability in people with neurological disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Mov Sci. 2016;47:197–208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2016.03.010.
Melzer I, Elbar O, Tsedek I, Oddsson LIE. A water-based training program that include perturbation exercises to improve stepping responses in older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled cross-over trial. BMC Geriatr. 2008;8:19. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2318-8-19.
Maki BE, McIlroy WE. The role of limb movements in maintaining upright stance: the “change-in-support” strategy. Phys Ther. 1997;77:488–507. https://doi.org/10.1093/ptj/77.5.488.
Debelle H, Harkness-Armstrong C, Hadwin K, Maganaris CN, O’Brien TD. Recovery from a forward falling slip: measurement of dynamic stability and strength requirements using a split-belt instrumented treadmill. Front Sports Act Living. 2020;2:82. https://doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2020.00082.
Riazati S, Caplan N, Hayes PR. The number of strides required for treadmill running gait analysis is unaffected by either speed or run duration. J Biomech. 2019;97: 109366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2019.109366.
Ciprandi D, Bertozzi F, Zago M, Ferreira CLP, Boari G, Sforza C, et al. Study of the association between gait variability and physical activity. Eur Rev Aging Phys Act. 2017;14:19. https://doi.org/10.1186/s11556-017-0188-0.
Taborri J, Santuz A, Brüll L, Arampatzis A, Rossi S. Measuring kinematic response to perturbed locomotion in young adults. Sensors. 2022;22:672. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22020672.
Madehkhaksar F, Klenk J, Sczuka K, Gordt K, Melzer I, Schwenk M. The effects of unexpected mechanical perturbations during treadmill walking on spatiotemporal gait parameters, and the dynamic stability measures by which to quantify postural response. PLoS ONE. 2018;13: e0195902. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195902.
Wang Y, Wang S, Lee A, Pai Y-C, Bhatt T. Treadmill-gait slip training in community-dwelling older adults: mechanisms of immediate adaptation for a progressive ascending-mixed-intensity protocol. Exp Brain Res. 2019;237:2305–17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05582-3.
Bruijn SM, Meijer OG, Beek PJ, van Dieën JH. Assessing the stability of human locomotion: a review of current measures. J R Soc Interface. 2013;10:20120999. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2012.0999.
Bytyçi I, Henein MY. Stride length predicts adverse clinical events in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Med. 2021;10:2670. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10122670.
Stoneham R, Barry G, Saxby L, Waters L, Wilkinson M. Differences in stride length and lower limb moments of recreational runners during over-ground running while barefoot, in minimalist and in maximalist running shoes. Footwear Sci. 2021;13:133–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/19424280.2021.1878285.
Van Hooren B, Fuller JT, Buckley JD, Miller JR, Sewell K, Rao G, et al. Is motorized treadmill running biomechanically comparable to overground running? A systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-over studies. Sports Med. 2020;50:785–813. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-019-01237-z.
Semaan MB, Wallard L, Ruiz V, Gillet C, Leteneur S, Simoneau-Buessinger E. Is treadmill walking biomechanically comparable to overground walking? A systematic review. Gait Posture. 2022;92:249–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2021.11.009.
König Ignasiak N, Ravi DK, Orter S, Hosseini Nasab SH, Taylor WR, Singh NB. Does variability of footfall kinematics correlate with dynamic stability of the centre of mass during walking? PLoS ONE. 2019;14: e0217460. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217460.
Maki BE. Gait changes in older adults: predictors of falls or indicators of fear? J Am Geriatr Soc. 1997;45:313–20. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.1997.tb00946.x.
Owings TM, Grabiner MD. Step width variability, but not step length variability or step time variability, discriminates gait of healthy young and older adults during treadmill locomotion. J Biomech. 2004;37:935–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2003.11.012.
Skiadopoulos A, Moore EE, Sayles HR, Schmid KK, Stergiou N. Step width variability as a discriminator of age-related gait changes. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2020;17:41. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12984-020-00671-9.
Bauby CE, Kuo AD. Active control of lateral balance in human walking. J Biomech. 2000;33:1433–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9290(00)00101-9.
Brach JS, Berlin JE, VanSwearingen JM, Newman AB, Studenski SA. Too much or too little step width variability is associated with a fall history in older persons who walk at or near normal gait speed. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2005;2:21. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-0003-2-21.
Pereira MP, Orcioli-Silva D, de Sousa PN, Beretta VS, Gobbi LTB. The effects of habitual footwear in gait outcomes in people with Parkinson’s disease. Gait Posture. 2019;68:111–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2018.11.013.
Grabiner PC, Biswas ST, Grabiner MD. Age-related changes in spatial and temporal gait variables. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001;82:31–5. https://doi.org/10.1053/apmr.2001.18219.
Gabell A, Nayak USL. The effect of age on variability in gait. J Gerontol. 1984;39:662–6. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronj/39.6.662.
Robbins S, Gouw GJ, McClaran J. Shoe sole thickness and hardness influence balance in older men. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1992;40:1089–94. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.1992.tb01795.x.
Nestico J, Novak A, Perry SD, Mansfield A. Does increased gait variability improve stability when faced with an expected balance perturbation during treadmill walking? Gait Posture. 2021;86:94–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2021.03.014.
Perera S, Smith C, Coffman L, Brach J. Number of steps needed for reliable gait variability measurement. Gerontologist. 2016;56(3):335–6. https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnw162.1366.
König N, Singh NB, von Beckerath J, Janke L, Taylor WR. Is gait variability reliable? An assessment of spatio-temporal parameters of gait variability during continuous overground walking. Gait Posture. 2014;39:615–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2013.06.014.
Hollman JH, Childs KB, McNeil ML, Mueller AC, Quilter CM, Youdas JW. Number of strides required for reliable measurements of pace, rhythm and variability parameters of gait during normal and dual task walking in older individuals. Gait Posture. 2010;32:23–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2010.02.017.
Hamacher D, Hamacher D, Krowicki M, Schega L. Between-day test–retest reliability of gait variability in older individuals improves with a familiarization trial. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2017;29:327–9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40520-016-0536-3.