Hu SS, Kong LZ, Gao RL, Zhu ML, Wang W, Wang YJ, et al. Outline of the report on cardiovascular disease in China, 2010. Biomed Environ Sci. 2012;25(3):251–6.
Suinesiaputra A, McCulloch AD, Nash MP, Pontre B, Young AA. Cardiac image modelling: breadth and depth in heart disease. Med Image Anal. 2016;33:38–43.
Sofi F, Capalbo A, Cesari F, Abbate R, Gensini GF. Physical activity during leisure time and primary prevention of coronary heart disease: an updated meta-analysis of cohort studies. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2008;15(3):247–57.
K. S: The Global Economic Burden of Noncommunicable Diseases. F, 2012 [C] 2012.
Zhang J, Lu N. The association between childhood conditions and heart disease among middle-aged and older population in China: a life course perspective. BMC Geriatr. 2021;21(1):184.
Liu J, Ma C. Current state of cardiovascular research in China. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2019;16(10):575–6.
Chen Z, Peto R, Zhou M, Iona A, Smith M, Yang L, et al. Contrasting male and female trends in tobacco-attributed mortality in China: evidence from successive nationwide prospective cohort studies. Lancet. 2015;386(10002):1447–56.
Lv J, Yu C, Guo Y, Bian Z, Yang L, Chen Y, et al. Adherence to healthy lifestyle and cardiovascular diseases in the Chinese population. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;69(9):1116–25.
National Center for chronic disease P, health promotion office on S, health: reports of the surgeon general. In: The health consequences of smoking—50 years of Progress: a report of the surgeon general. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); 2014.
Joseph P, Leong D, McKee M, Anand SS, Schwalm JD, Teo K, et al. Reducing the global burden of cardiovascular disease, part 1: the epidemiology and risk factors. Circ Res. 2017;121(6):677–94.
Manson JE, Greenland P, LaCroix AZ, Stefanick ML, Mouton CP, Oberman A, et al. Walking compared with vigorous exercise for the prevention of cardiovascular events in women. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(10):716–25.
Wilson MG, Ellison GM, Cable NT. Basic science behind the cardiovascular benefits of exercise. Br J Sports Med. 2016;50(2):93–9.
Zhao D, Liu J, Wang M, Zhang X, Zhou M. Epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in China: current features and implications. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2019;16(4):203–12.
Fiuza-Luces C, Santos-Lozano A, Joyner M, Carrera-Bastos P, Picazo O, Zugaza JL, et al. Exercise benefits in cardiovascular disease: beyond attenuation of traditional risk factors. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2018;15(12):731–43.
Vega RB, Konhilas JP, Kelly DP, Leinwand LA. Molecular mechanisms underlying cardiac adaptation to exercise. Cell Metab. 2017;25(5):1012–26.
Wang S, Ren J. Obesity paradox in aging: from prevalence to pathophysiology. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2018;61(2):182–9.
Seo DY, Kwak HB, Kim AH, Park SH, Heo JW, Kim HK, et al. Cardiac adaptation to exercise training in health and disease. Pflugers Arch. 2020;472(2):155–68.
Bull FC, Al-Ansari SS, Biddle S, Borodulin K, Buman MP, Cardon G, et al. World Health Organization 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Br J Sports Med. 2020;54(24):1451–62.
Gersh BJ, Sliwa K, Mayosi BM, Yusuf S. Novel therapeutic concepts: the epidemic of cardiovascular disease in the developing world: global implications. Eur Heart J. 2010;31(6):642–8.
Zeng Z, Bian Y, Cui Y, Yang D, Wang Y, Yu C. Physical activity dimensions and its association with risk of diabetes in middle and older aged Chinese people. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(21).
Benjamin EJ, Muntner P, Alonso A, Bittencourt MS, Callaway CW, Carson AP, et al. Heart disease and stroke Statistics-2019 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2019;139(10):e56–e528.
Ford ES, Roger VL, Dunlay SM, Go AS, Rosamond WD. Challenges of ascertaining national trends in the incidence of coronary heart disease in the United States. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014;3(6):e001097.
Townsend N, Wilson L, Bhatnagar P, Wickramasinghe K, Rayner M, Nichols M. Cardiovascular disease in Europe: epidemiological update 2016. Eur Heart J. 2016;37(42):3232–45.
Zhang Q, Zhao D, Xie W, Xie X, Guo M, Wang M, et al. Recent trends in hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction in Beijing: increasing overall burden and a transition from ST-segment elevation to non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in a population-based study. Medicine. 2016;95(5):e2677.
Liu S, Li Y, Zeng X, Wang H, Yin P, Wang L, et al. Burden of cardiovascular diseases in China, 1990-2016: findings from the 2016 global burden of disease study. JAMA Cardiol. 2019;4(4):342–52.
Donahue RP, Abbott RD, Reed DM, Yano K. Physical activity and coronary heart disease in middle-aged and elderly men: the Honolulu heart program. Am J Public Health. 1988;78(6):683–5.
Dalene KE, Tarp J, Selmer RM, Ariansen IKH, Nystad W, Coenen P, et al. Occupational physical activity and longevity in working men and women in Norway: a prospective cohort study. Lancet Public Health. 2021;6(6):e386–95.
Holtermann A, Krause N, van der Beek AJ, Straker L. The physical activity paradox: six reasons why occupational physical activity (OPA) does not confer the cardiovascular health benefits that leisure time physical activity does. Br J Sports Med. 2018;52(3):149–50.
Holtermann A, Schnohr P, Nordestgaard BG, Marott JL. The physical activity paradox in cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: the contemporary Copenhagen general population study with 104 046 adults. Eur Heart J. 2021;42(15):1499–511.
Smith P, Ma H, Glazier RH, Gilbert-Ouimet M, Mustard C. The relationship between occupational standing and sitting and incident heart disease over a 12-year period in Ontario, Canada. Am J Epidemiol. 2018;187(1):27–33.
Brownson RC, Boehmer TK, Luke DA. Declining rates of physical activity in the United States: what are the contributors? Annu Rev Public Health. 2005;26:421–43.
Church TS, Thomas DM, Tudor-Locke C, Katzmarzyk PT, Earnest CP, Rodarte RQ, et al. Trends over 5 decades in U.S. occupation-related physical activity and their associations with obesity. PLoS One. 2011;6(5):e19657.
Droomers M, Schrijvers CT, van de Mheen H, Mackenbach JP. Educational differences in leisure-time physical inactivity: a descriptive and explanatory study. Soc Sci Med. 1988;47(11):1665–76.
Rupps E, Haenle MM, Steinacker J, Mason RA, Oeztuerk S, Steiner R, et al. Physical exercise in southern Germany: a cross-sectional study of an urban population. BMJ Open. 2012;2(2):e000713.
Coday M, Klesges LM, Garrison RJ, Johnson KC, O'Toole M, Morris GS. Health opportunities with physical exercise (HOPE): social contextual interventions to reduce sedentary behavior in urban settings. Health Educ Res. 2002;17(5):637–47.
Batty GD. Physical activity and coronary heart disease in older adults. A systematic review of epidemiological studies. Eur J Pub Health. 2002;12(3):171–6.
Gorgos D. Women's cardiac centers focus on the gender differences of heart disease.(WOMEN'S HEALTH UPDATE). Dermatol Nurs. 2006.
Yano K, Reed DM, McGee DL. Ten-year incidence of coronary heart disease in the Honolulu heart program. Relationship to biologic and lifestyle characteristics. Am J Epidemiol. 1984;119(5):653–66.
Hou Q, Guan Y, Yu W, Liu X, Wu L, Xiao M, et al. Associations between obesity and cognitive impairment in the Chinese elderly: an observational study. Clin Interv Aging. 2019;14:367–73.
Lamon-Fava S, Wilson PW, Schaefer EJ. Impact of body mass index on coronary heart disease risk factors in men and women. The Framingham offspring study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1996;16(12):1509–15.
Piano MR. Alcohol's effects on the cardiovascular system. Alcohol Res. 2017;38(2):219–41.
Kondo T, Nakano Y, Adachi S, Murohara T. Effects of tobacco smoking on cardiovascular disease. Circul J. 2019;83(10):1980–5.
Mozaffarian D, Benjamin EJ, Go AS, Arnett DK, Blaha MJ, Cushman M, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics--2015 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2015;131(4):e29–322.
Arwood MJ, Cavallari LH, Duarte JD. Pharmacogenomics of hypertension and heart disease. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2015;17(9):586.
Thoenes M, Neuberger HR, Volpe M, Khan BV, Kirch W, Böhm M. Antihypertensive drug therapy and blood pressure control in men and women: an international perspective. J Hum Hypertens. 2010;24(5):336–44.
Hsu CY, McCulloch CE, Darbinian J, Go AS, Iribarren C. Elevated blood pressure and risk of end-stage renal disease in subjects without baseline kidney disease. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(8):923–8.
Lawes CM, Vander Hoorn S, Rodgers A. Global burden of blood-pressure-related disease, 2001. Lancet. 2008;371(9623):1513–8.
Wojciechowska J, Krajewski W, Bolanowski M, Kręcicki T, Zatoński T. Diabetes and Cancer: a review of current knowledge. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2016;124(5):263–75.
Clodi M, Saely C, Hoppichler F, Resl M, Steinwender C, Eber B. Diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease and heart disease. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2016;128:S212–5.
Fallon CK. Husbands' hearts and Women's health: gender, age, and heart disease in twentieth-century America. Bull Hist Med. 2019;93(4):577–609.