Sluggett JK, Harrison SL, Ritchie L, Clough AJ, Rigby D, Caughey GE, Tan EC. High-risk medication use in older residents of long-term care facilities: prevalence, harms and strategies to mitigate risks and enhance use. Sr Care Pharm. 2020;35(10):419–33. https://doi.org/10.4140/TCP.n.2020.419.
Van Brunt K, Curtis B, Brooks K, Heinloth A, de Cassia CR. Insulin use in long term care settings for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review of the literature. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2013;14(11):809–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2013.08.018.
Harrison SL, Sluggett JK, Lang C, Whitehead C, Crotty M, Corlis M, Wesslingh S, Inacio MC. The dispensing of psychotropic medicines to older people before and after they enter residential aged care. Med J Aust. 2020;212(7):309–13. https://doi.org/10.5694/mja2.50501.
Campitelli MA, Bronskill SE, Huang A, Maclagan LC, Atzema CL, Hogan DB, Lapane KL, Harris DA, Maxwell CJ. Trends in anticoagulant use at nursing home admission and variation by frailty and chronic kidney disease among older adults with atrial fibrillation. Drugs Aging. 2021;38(7):611–23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40266-021-00859-1.
Morin L, Laroche ML, Texier G, Johnell K. Prevalence of potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults living in nursing homes: a systematic review. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2016;17(9):862.e861–869. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2016.06.011.
Steinman MA, Fick DM. Using Wisely: A reminder on the proper use of the American Geriatrics Society Beers Criteria®. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2019;67(4):644–6. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.15766.
Alldred DP, Kennedy MC, Hughes C, Chen TF, Miller P. Interventions to optimise prescribing for older people in care homes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;2(2):CD009095. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD009095.pub3.
Chen TF. Pharmacist-led Home Medicines Review and Residential Medication Management Review: the Australian model. Drugs Aging. 2016;33(3):199–204. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40266-016-0357-2.
Pharmaceutical Society of Australia. Guidelines for comprehensive medication management reviews. Canberra: PSA; 2020.
Medicare Item Reports [updated 18 December 2020]. Australian Government Services Australia. 2020. http://medicarestatistics.humanservices.gov.au/statistics/mbs_item.jsp. Accessed 20 Oct 2021.
Pharmacy Programs Data. Australian Government Department of Health. 2021. https://www1.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/pharmacy-programs-data. Accessed 20 Oct 2021.
Australian Government Department of Health. Guiding principles for medication management in residential aged care facilities. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia; 2012.
Chen EYH, Wang KN, Sluggett JK, Ilomäki J, Hilmer SN, Corlis M, Bell JS. Process, impact and outcomes of medication review in Australian residential aged care facilities: a systematic review. Australas J Ageing. 2019;38(Suppl. 2):9–25. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajag.12676.
Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care. Medication without harm - WHO Global Patient Safety Challenge. Australia’s response. Sydney: ACSQHC; 2020.
Royal Commission into Aged Care Quality and Safety. Interim report: Neglect, vol. 1. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia; 2019.
Liau SJ, Lalic S, Sluggett JK, Cesari M, Onder G, Vetrano DL, Morin L, Hartikainen S, Hamina A, Johnell K, et al. Medication management in frail older people: consensus principles for clinical practice, research, and education. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2020;22(1):43–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2020.05.004.
Thiruchelvam K, Hasan SS, Wong PS, Kairuz T. Residential aged care medication review to improve the quality of medication use: a systematic review. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2017;18(1):87.e81–87.e14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2016.10.004.
Roberts MS, Stokes JA, King MA, Lynne TA, Purdie DM, Glasziou PP, Wilson DAJ, McCarthy ST, Brooks GE, De Looze FJ, et al. Outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of a clinical pharmacy intervention in 52 nursing homes. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2001;51(3):257–65. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2125.2001.00347.x.
Nishtala PS, Hilmer SN, McLachlan AJ, Hannan PJ, Chen TF. Impact of Residential Medication Management Reviews on Drug Burden Index in aged-care homes. Drugs Aging. 2009;26(8):677–86. https://doi.org/10.2165/11316440-000000000-00000.
McLarin PE, Peterson GM, Curtain CM, Nishtala PS, Hannan PJ, Castelino RL. Impact of Residential Medication Management Reviews on anticholinergic burden in aged care residents. Curr Med Res Opin. 2016;32(1):123–31. https://doi.org/10.1185/03007995.2015.1105794.
Coleman L, Brett J, Daniels B, Pearson S, Falster M. Medicine reviews: do they reduce benzodiazepine use in older Australians? Pub Health Res Pract. 2021;31(3):30452015. https://doi.org/10.17061/phrp30452015.
Inacio MC, Lang C, Bray S, Visvanathan R, Whitehead C, Griffith E, Evans K, Corlis M, Wesselingh SL. Health status and health care trends of individuals accessing Australian aged care programs over a decade: the Registry of Senior Australians (ROSA) Historical Cohort. Intern Med J. 2021;51(5):712–24. https://doi.org/10.1111/imj.14871.
Sluggett JK, Bell JS, Lang C, Corlis M, Whitehead C, Wesselingh SL, Inacio MC. Variation in provision of collaborative medication reviews on entry to long-term care facilities. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2021;22(1):148–155.e141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2020.10.027.
Aged Care Assessment Program Data Dictionary Version 1.0. 2002. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. 2002. https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/aged-care/aged-care-assessment-program-data-dictionary-versi/contents/table-of-contents. Accessed 20 Oct 2021.
Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. Aged Care Funding Instrument (ACFI) User Guide. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia; 2013.
PBS Expenditure and Prescriptions Report 1 July 2020 to 30 June 2021. Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. 2021. https://www.pbs.gov.au/info/statistics/expenditure-prescriptions/pbs-expenditure-and-prescriptions-report-30-june-2021. Accessed 3 May 2022.
ATC/DDD index 2021. WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology. 2021. http://www.whocc.no/atc_ddd_index/. Accessed 20 Oct 2021.
MBS Online: Medicare Benefits Schedule. Australian Government Department of Health. 2021. http://www.mbsonline.gov.au/. Accessed 20 Oct 2021.
Sluggett JK, Bell JS, Lang C, Corlis M, Whitehead C, Wesselingh S, Inacio M. Residential Medication Management Reviews in Australian residential aged care facilities. Med J Aust. 2021;214(9):432–3. https://doi.org/10.5694/mja2.50921.
Lundby C, Jensen J, Larsen SP, Hoffmann H, Pottegard A, Reilev M. Use of medication among nursing home residents: a Danish drug utilisation study. Age Ageing. 2020;49(5):814–20. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afaa029.
Liu E, Dyer SM, Whitehead C, O’Donnell LK, Gnanamanickam ES, Harrison SL, Milte R, Crotty M. Patterns of medication prescription by dementia diagnosis in Australian nursing home residents: a cross-sectional study. J Pharm Pract Res. 2019;49(1):33–40. https://doi.org/10.1002/jppr.1457.
Jokanovic N, Jamsen KM, Tan ECK, Dooley MJ, Kirkpatrick CM, Bell JS. Prevalence and variability in medications contributing to polypharmacy in long-term care facilities. Drugs Real World Outcomes. 2017;4(4):235–45. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40801-017-0121-x.
Pottegård A, Hallas J. Assigning exposure duration to single prescriptions by use of the waiting time distribution. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2013;22(8):803–9. https://doi.org/10.1002/pds.3459.
Linden A. Conducting interrupted time-series analysis for single- and multiple-group comparisons. Stata J. 2015;15(2):480–500. https://doi.org/10.1177/1536867x1501500208.
Linden A. A Comprehensive set of postestimation measures to enrich interrupted time-series analysis. Stata J. 2017;17(1):73–88. https://doi.org/10.1177/1536867x1701700105.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASHC), July 2011. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia; 2011.
Pratt NL, Kerr M, Barratt JD, Kemp-Casey A, Kalisch Ellett LM, Ramsay E, Roughead EE. The validity of the Rx-Risk Comorbidity Index using medicines mapped to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification System. BMJ Open. 2018;8(4):e021122. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-021122.
GEN Aged Care Data: Admissions into aged care. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. 2021. https://www.gen-agedcaredata.gov.au/Topics/Admissions-into-aged-care. Accessed 20 Oct 2021.
Hilmer S, Gnjidic D. Statins in older adults. Aust Prescr. 2013;36(3):79–82. https://doi.org/10.18773/austprescr.2013.034.
Staykov E, Qureshi D, Scott M, Talarico R, Hsu AT, Howard M, Costa AP, Fung C, Ip M, Liddy C, et al. Do patients retain their family physicians after long-term care entry? a retrospective cohort study. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2020.04.016.
Welberry HJ, Jorm LR, Schaffer AL, Barbieri S, Hsu B, Harris MF, Hall J, Brodaty H. Psychotropic medicine prescribing and polypharmacy for people with dementia entering residential aged care: the influence of changing general practitioners. Med J Aust. 2021;215(3):130–6. https://doi.org/10.5694/mja2.51153.
Crotty M, Rowett D, Spurling L, Giles LC, Phillips PA. Does the addition of a pharmacist transition coordinator improve evidence-based medication management and health outcomes in older adults moving from the hospital to a long-term care facility? Results of a randomized, controlled trial. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2004;2(4):257–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjopharm.2005.01.001.
Kosari S, Koerner J, Naunton M, Peterson GM, Haider I, Lancsar E, Wright D, Niyonsenga T, Davey R. Integrating pharmacists into aged care facilities to improve the quality use of medicine (PiRACF Study): protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial. Trials. 2021;22(1):390. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-021-05335-0.
Pottegård A, Lundby C, Ejg Jarbøl D, Larsen SP, Hoppe BC, Hoffmann H, Thompson W. Use of sedating medications around nursing home admission in Denmark. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. https://doi.org/10.1002/pds.5341.
Deprescribing Reference Group. A guide to deprescribing: General information. Primary Health Tasmania. 2019. https://www.primaryhealthtas.com.au/resources/deprescribing-resources/. Accessed 20 Oct 2021.
Curtin D, Gallagher P, O’Mahony D. Deprescribing in older people approaching end-of-life: development and validation of STOPPFrail version 2. Age Ageing. 2020;50(2):465–71. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afaa159.
Odden MC, Lee SJ, Steinman MA, Rubinsky AD, Graham L, Jing B, Fung K, Marcum ZA, Peralta CA. Deprescribing blood pressure treatment in long-term care residents. J Am Med Dir Assoc. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2021.07.009.
Liacos M, Page AT, Etherton-Beer C. Deprescribing in older people. Aust Prescr. 2020;43(4):114–20. https://doi.org/10.18773/austprescr.2020.033.
Turner JP, Edwards S, Stanners M, Shakib S, Bell JS. What factors are important for deprescribing in Australian long-term care facilities? Perspectives of residents and health professionals. BMJ Open. 2016;6(3):e009781. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009781.
McDerby N, Bail K, Kosari S, Shield A, Peterson G, Dawda P, Naunton M. Canaries in the coalmine: stakeholder perspectives of medication management reviews for residents with dementia. Res Soc Adm Pharm. 2020;16(9):1220–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2019.12.002.
Hillen JB, Soulsby N, Clarke M. Too many pills, too many sick older Australians: working together is key. Aust J Gen Pract. 2021;50(3):171–4. https://doi.org/10.31128/AJGP-07-20-5548.
Sluggett JK, Collier L, Bartholomaeus JD, Inacio MC, Wesselingh SL, Caughey GE. National Trends and Policy Impacts on Provision of Home Medicines Reviews and Residential Medication Management Reviews in Older Australians, 2009–2019. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(18):9898. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189898.
Jandoc R, Burden AM, Mamdani M, Lévesque LE, Cadarette SM. Interrupted time series analysis in drug utilization research is increasing: systematic review and recommendations. J Clin Epidemiol. 2015;68(8):950–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2014.12.018.
Lopez Bernal J, Cummins S, Gasparrini A. The use of controls in interrupted time series studies of public health interventions. Int J Epidemiol. 2018;47(6):2082–93. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyy135.
Nielsen S, Gisev N, Bruno R, Hall W, Cohen M, Larance B, Campbell G, Shanahan M, Blyth F, Lintzeris N, et al. Defined daily doses (DDD) do not accurately reflect opioid doses used in contemporary chronic pain treatment. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2017;26(5):587–91. https://doi.org/10.1002/pds.4168.
Sluggett JK, Moldovan M, Lynn DJ, Papanicolas LE, Crotty M, Whitehead C, Wesselingh SL, Rogers GB, Inacio MC. National trends in antibiotic use in Australian residential aged care facilities, 2005–2016. Clin Infect Dis. 2021;72(12):2167–74. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa436.