Zhang SX, Wang Y, Rauch A, Wei F. Unprecedented disruption of lives and work: health, distress and life satisfaction of working adults in China one month into the COVID-19 outbreak. Psychiatry Res. 2020;288:112958. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112958.
Wang C, Tripp C, Sears SF, et al. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical and mental health in the two largest economies in the world: a comparison between the United States and China. J Behav Med. 2021;44(6):741–59. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-021-00237-7.
Wang C, Pan R, Wan X, et al. Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(5):1729. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051729 Published 2020 Mar 6.
Wang C, Chudzicka-Czupała A, Grabowski D, et al. The association between physical and mental health and face mask use during the COVID-19 pandemic: a comparison of two countries with different views and practices. Front Psych. 2020;11:569981. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.569981 Published 2020 Sep 9.
Wang C, López-Núñez MI, Pan R, et al. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical and mental health in China and Spain: cross-sectional study. JMIR Form Res. 2021;5(5):e27818. https://doi.org/10.2196/27818 Published 2021 May 21.
Wang C, Chudzicka-Czupała A, Tee ML, et al. A chain mediation model on COVID-19 symptoms and mental health outcomes in Americans, Asians and Europeans. Sci Rep. 2021;11(1):6481. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85943-7 Published 2021 Mar 19.
Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(13):1199–207. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2001316.
Liu K, Chen Y, Lin R, Han K. Clinical features of COVID-19 in elderly patients: a comparison with young and middle-aged patients. J Inf Secur. 2020;80(6):e14–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.005.
Onder G, Rezza G, Brusaferro S. Case-fatality rate and characteristics of patients dying in relation to COVID-19 in Italy [published correction appears in JAMA. 2020 Apr 28;323(16):1619]. JAMA. 2020;323(18):1775–6. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.4683.
Peeri NC, Shrestha N, Rahman MS, et al. The SARS, MERS and novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemics, the newest and biggest global health threats: what lessons have we learned? Int J Epidemiol. 2020;49(3):717–26. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyaa033.
Yanez ND, Weiss NS, Romand JA, Treggiari MM. COVID-19 mortality risk for older men and women. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):1742. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09826-8 Published 2020 Nov 19.
Sánchez-Teruel D, Robles-Bello MA, Sarhani-Robles M, Sarhani-Robles A. Exploring resilience and well-being of family caregivers of people with dementia exposed to mandatory social isolation by COVID-19. Dementia (London). 2022;21(2):410–25. https://doi.org/10.1177/14713012211042187.
Remuzzi A, Remuzzi G. COVID-19 and Italy: what next? Lancet. 2020;395(10231):1225–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30627-9.
López J, Perez-Rojo G, Noriega C, Martinez-Huertas JA, Velasco C. Emotional distress among older adults during the COVID-19 outbreak: understanding the longitudinal psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychogeriatrics. 2022;22(1):77–83. https://doi.org/10.1111/psyg.12781.
Jaul E, Barron J. Characterizing the heterogeneity of aging: a vision for a staging system for aging. Front Public Health. 2021;9:513557. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.513557 Published 2021 Oct 12.
Tomás JM, Sancho P, Melendez JC, Mayordomo T. Resilience and coping as predictors of general well-being in the elderly: a structural equation modeling approach. Aging Ment Health. 2012;16(3):317–26. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2011.615737.
American Psychological Association. The Road to Resilience. Washington DC: American Psychological Association; 2014.
Allen RS, Dorman HR, Henkin H, Carden KD, Potts D. Definition of Resilience In: Resnick B, Gwyther LP, Roberto KA, editors. Resilience in Aging: Concepts, Research, and Outcomes. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2018. p. 1–15.
MacLeod S, Musich S, Hawkins K, Alsgaard K, Wicker ER. The impact of resilience among older adults. Geriatr Nurs. 2016;37(4):266–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gerinurse.2016.02.014.
Chen LK. Older adults and COVID-19 pandemic: resilience matters. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2020;89:104124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2020.104124.
Fuller HR, Huseth-Zosel A. Lessons in resilience: initial coping among older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Gerontologist. 2021;61(1):114–25. https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnaa170.
Igarashi H, Kurth ML, Lee HS, Choun S, Lee D, Aldwin CM. Resilience in older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic: a socioecological approach. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2022;77(4):e64–9. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbab058.
Kim SH, Park S. A meta-analysis of the correlates of successful aging in older adults. Res Aging. 2017;39(5):657–77. https://doi.org/10.1177/0164027516656040.
Hahn EA, Cichy KE, Almeida DM, Haley WE. Time use and well-being in older widows: adaptation and resilience. J Women Aging. 2011;23(2):149–59. https://doi.org/10.1080/08952841.2011.561139.
Laidlaw K, Thompson LW, Gallagher-Thompson D, Dick-Siskin L. Cognitive behavior therapy with older people. Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470713402.
Gordon EH, Hubbard RE. Differences in frailty in older men and women. Med J Aust. 2020;212(4):183–8. https://doi.org/10.5694/mja2.50466.
Martínez-Moreno A, Ibáñez-Pérez RJ, Cavas-García F, Cano-Noguera F. Older adults’ gender, age and physical activity effects on anxiety, optimism, resilience and engagement. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(20):7561. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207561 Published 2020 Oct 17.
Płomecka MB, Gobbi S, Neckels R, et al. Mental health impact of COVID-19: a global study of risk and resilience factors. medRxiv. 2020:2020.05.05.20092023. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.05.20092023.
Spiegel T, Brons A, Volker B. Does the intersection between age and sex matter in emotional and social resources for resilience during the first COVID-19 lockdown in the Netherlands? 2022. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com.
Nygren B, Aléx L, Jonsén E, Gustafson Y, Norberg A, Lundman B. Resilience, sense of coherence, purpose in life and self-transcendence in relation to perceived physical and mental health among the oldest old. Aging Ment Health. 2005;9(4):354–62. https://doi.org/10.1080/1360500114415/abstract=4017654 or https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4017654.
Zeng Y, Shen K. Resilience significantly contributes to exceptional longevity. Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res. 2010;2010:525693. https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/525693.
Sacco SJ, Park CL, Suresh DP, Bliss D. Living with heart failure: psychosocial resources, meaning, gratitude and well-being. Heart Lung. 2014;43(3):213–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrtlng.2014.01.012.
Fox GR, Kaplan J, Damasio H, Damasio A. Neural correlates of gratitude. Front Psychol. 2015;6:1491. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01491 Published 2015 Sep 30.
Watkins PC, Uhder J, Pichinevskiy S. Grateful recounting enhances subjective well-being: the importance of grateful processing. J Posit Psychol. 2015;10(2):91–8. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2014.927909.
Wood AM, Froh JJ, Geraghty AW. Gratitude and well-being: a review and theoretical integration. Clin Psychol Rev. 2010;30(7):890–905. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.03.005.
Fredrickson BL, Tugade MM, Waugh CE, Larkin GR. What good are positive emotions in crises? A prospective study of resilience and emotions following the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11th, 2001. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2003;84(2):365–76. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-35220.127.116.115.
Peterson C, Seligman ME. Character strengths before and after September 11. Psychol Sci. 2003;14(4):381–4. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.24482.
Emmons RA, McCullough ME. The psychology of gratitude. Oxford University Press; 2004.
Laird KT, Lavretsky H, Paholpak P, et al. Clinical correlates of resilience factors in geriatric depression. Int Psychogeriatr. 2019;31(2):193–202. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610217002873.
Dirzyte A, Rakauskienė OG, Servetkienė V. Evaluation of resilience impact on socio-economic inequality. Entrep Sustain Issues. 2017;4(4):489–501. https://doi.org/10.9770/jesi.2017.4.4(7).
Maddi SR. On hardiness and other pathways to resilience. Am Psychol. 2005;60(3):261–7. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.60.3.261.
Sinclair VG, Wallston KA. The development and psychometric evaluation of the brief resilient coping scale. Assessment. 2004;11(1):94–101. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191103258144.
Smith BW, Dalen J, Wiggins K, Tooley E, Christopher P, Bernard J. The brief resilience scale: assessing the ability to bounce back. Int J Behav Med. 2008;15(3):194–200. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705500802222972.
Smilkstein G. The family APGAR: a proposal for a family function test and its use by physicians. J Fam Pract. 1978;6(6):1231–9.
Littman-Ovadia H. Short form of the VIA inventory of strengths: construction and initial tests of reliability and validity. Int J Humanit Soc Sci Educ. 2015;2(4):229–37 www.arcjournals.org.
Bond FW, Hayes SC, Baer RA, et al. Preliminary psychometric properties of the acceptance and action questionnaire-II: a revised measure of psychological inflexibility and experiential avoidance. Behav Ther. 2011;42(4):676–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2011.03.007.
Ryff CD. Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1989;57(6):1069–81. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1689.
Howell RT, Rodzon KS, Kurai M, Sanchez AH. A validation of well-being and happiness surveys for administration via the internet. Behav Res Methods. 2010;42(3):775–84. https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.42.3.775.
Lau SYZ, Guerra RO, Barbosa JFS, Phillips SP. Impact of resilience on health in older adults: a cross-sectional analysis from the international mobility in aging study (IMIAS). BMJ Open. 2018;8(11):e023779. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023779 Published 2018 Nov 28.
Masten AS. Resilience in developing systems: progress and promise as the fourth wave rises. Dev Psychopathol. 2007;19(3):921–30. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579407000442.
Ho HCY, Yeung DY, Kwok SYCL. Development and evaluation of the positive psychology intervention for older adults. J Posit Psychol. 2014;9(3):187–97.
Ramírez E, Ortega AR, Chamorro A, Colmenero JM. A program of positive intervention in the elderly: memories, gratitude and forgiveness. Aging Ment Health. 2014;18(4):463–70. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2013.856858.
Sutipan P, Intarakamhang U, Macaskill A. The impact of positive psychological interventions on well-being in healthy elderly people. J Happiness Stud. 2017;18:269–91. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-015-9711-z.
Robinson M, Hanna E, Raine G, Robertson S. Extending the comfort zone: building resilience in older people with long-term conditions. J Appl Gerontol. 2019;38(6):825–48. https://doi.org/10.1177/0733464817724042.
Acosta JD, Chandra A, Madrigano J. An agenda to advance integrative resilience research and practice: key themes from a resilience roundtable. Rand Health Q. 2017;7(1):5 Published 2017 Jan 1.
Chan MF, Al-Shekaili M, Al-Adawi S, et al. Mental health outcomes among health-care workers in Oman during COVID-19: a cluster analysis. Int J Nurs Pract. 2021;27(6):e12998. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijn.12998.
Niti M, Ng TP, Kua EH, Ho RC, Tan CH. Depression and chronic medical illnesses in Asian older adults: the role of subjective health and functional status. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2007;22(11):1087–94. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.1789.
Chan SM, Chung GK, Chan YH, et al. Resilience and coping strategies of older adults in Hong Kong during COVID-19 pandemic: a mixed methods study. BMC Geriatr. 2022;22(1):299. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-022-03009-3 Published 2022 Apr 8.
Aldwin CM, Igarashi H. Successful, optimal, and resilient aging: a psychosocial perspective. In: Lichtenberg PA, Mast BT, Carpenter BD, Wetherell JL, eds. APA handbooks in psychology®. APA handbook of clinical geropsychology. Vol. 1. History and status of the field and perspectives on aging. American Psychological Association; 2015. p. 331–59.
Rowe JW, Kahn RL. Successful aging and disease prevention. Adv Ren Replace Ther. 2000;7(1):70–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1073-4449(00)70008-2.
Zhang MW, Ho RC. Moodle: the cost effective solution for internet cognitive behavioral therapy (I-CBT) interventions. Technol Health Care. 2017;25(1):163–5. https://doi.org/10.3233/THC-161261.
Soh HL, Ho RC, Ho CS, Tam WW. Efficacy of digital cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Sleep Med. 2020;75:315–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2020.08.020.
Ho CS, Chee CY, Ho RC. Mental health strategies to combat the psychological impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) beyond paranoia and panic. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2020;49(3):155–60.
Bolton KW, Praetorius RT, Smith-Osborne A. Resilience protective factors in an older adult population: a qualitative interpretive meta-synthesis. Soc Work Res. 2016;40(3):171–82. https://doi.org/10.1093/swr/svw008.