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Table 1 Variables characterizing each cluster in the study at baseline and at the end of the study (N = 916,619)

From: Multimorbidity patterns, polypharmacy and their association with liver and kidney abnormalities in people over 65 years of age: a longitudinal study

Variables Cluster 1 - Non-Specific Cluster 2 - Eye Impairment and Mental Cluster 3 - Minority Metabolic Autoimmune-Inflammatory Cluster 4 - Cardio-Circulatory and Renal Cluster 5 - Cardio-Circulatory, Mental, Respiratory and Genitourinary Cluster 6 - Neurological, Digestive and Circulatory Cluster 7 - Respiratory and Ear Cluster 8 - Digestive Cluster 9 - Neurological, Musculoskeletal and minor Cluster 10 - Multisystem Pattern Overall (patients alive)
N2012=384787 (42.0%) - N2016=258700 (34.8%) N2012=177087 (19.3%) - N2016=155008 (20.8%) N2012=72190 (7.9%) - N2016=73237 (9.8%) N2012=60192 (6.6%) - N2016=46244 (6.2%) N2012=54324 (5.9%) - N2016=45463 (6.1%) N2012=42422 (4.6%) - N2016=41120 (5.5%) N2012=41644 (4.5%) - N2016=38961 (5.2%) N2012=35692 (3.9%) - N2016=31744 (4.3%) N2012=33283 (3.6%) - N2016=36522 (4.9%) N2012=14998 (1.6%) - N2016=16828 (2.3%) N2012=916619 - N2016= 743827
Sex:
 Female 201958 (52.5%) - 137931 (53.3%) 130572 (73.7%) - 113574 (73.3%) 31395 (43.5%) - 31490 (43.0%) 42638 (70.8%) - 32786 (70.9%) 3618 (6.7%) - 2902 (6.4%) 23577 (55.6%) - 22601 (55.0%) 31143 (74.8%) - 28838 (74.0%) 19915 (55.8%) - 17846 (56.2%) 30830 (92.6%) - 33718 (92.3%) 13485 (89.9%) - 15005 (89.2%) 529131 (57.8%) - 436691 (58.7%)
 Male 182829 (47.5%) - 120769 (46.7%) 46515 (26.3%) - 41434 (26.7%) 40795 (56.5%) - 41747 (57.0%) 17554 (29.2%) - 13458 (29.1%) 50706 (93.3%) - 42561 (93.6%) 18845 (44.4%) - 18519 (45.0%) 10501 (25.2%) - 10123 (26.0%) 15777 (44.2%) - 13898 (43.8%) 2453 (7.4%) - 2804 (7.7%) 1513 (10.1%) - 1823 (10.8%) 387488 (42.2%) - 307136 (41.3%)
Patients with Multimorbidity: 323153 (84.0%) - 238466 (92.2%) 176734 (99.8%) - 154922 (99.9%) 71562 (99.1%) - 73039 (99.7%) 60192 (100.0%) - 46243 (100.0%) 54318 (100.0%) - 45463 (100.0%) 42126 (99.3%) - 41020 (99.8%) 41413 (99.4%) - 38885 (99.8%) 35306 (98.9%) - 31628 (99.6%) 33283 (100.0%) - 36522 (100.0%) 14998 (100.0%) - 16828 (100.0%) 853085 (93.1%) - 723016 (97.2%)
Patients with Polypharmacy: 122956 (32.0%) - 84206 (32.5%) 110504 (62.4%) - 99185 (64.0%) 43115 (59.7%) - 44500 (60.8%) 51759 (86.0%) - 40528 (87.6%) 43829 (80.7%) - 38159 (83.9%) 30644 (72.2%) - 29788 (72.4%) 29416 (70.6%) - 28254 (72.5%) 20336 (57.0%) - 18717 (59.0%) 22739 (68.3%) - 25338 (69.4%) 12204 (81.4%) - 13710 (81.5%) 487502 (53.2%) - 422385 (56.8%)
Age (Mean): 74.8 - 73.3 74.2 - 73.5 75.9 - 74.5 80.6 - 78.3 76.7 - 75.0 78.7 - 76.3 75.3 - 74.0 74.8 - 73.6 72.8 - 72.5 76.9 - 75.8 75.5 - 74.1
Age (n,%):
 [65,70) 121226 (31.5%) - 96106 (37.1%) 55687 (31.4%) - 52749 (34.0%) 17825 (24.7%) - 21292 (29.1%) 4711 (7.8%) - 5461 (11.8%) 10906 (20.1%) - 11395 (25.1%) 5578 (13.1%) - 7904 (19.2%) 10981 (26.4%) - 12061 (31.0%) 10135 (28.4%) - 10472 (33.0%) 12210 (36.7%) - 13773 (37.7%) 2919 (19.5%) - 3788 (22.5%) 252178 (27.5%) - 235001 (31.6%)
 [70,80) 162009 (42.1%) - 113532 (43.9%) 81567 (46.1%) - 72827 (47.0%) 31466 (43.6%) - 34163 (46.6%) 20490 (34.0%) - 20320 (43.9%) 24074 (44.3%) - 22198 (48.8%) 16968 (40.0%) - 19730 (48.0%) 19002 (45.6%) - 18753 (48.1%) 16359 (45.8%) - 15101 (47.6%) 16152 (48.5%) - 17933 (49.1%) 6499 (43.3%) - 7863 (46.7%) 394586 (43.1%) - 342420 (46%)
 [80,90) 86495 (22.5%) - 44749 (17.3%) 36744 (20.7%) - 27946 (18.0%) 20059 (27.8%) - 16495 (22.5%) 29143 (48.4%) - 18693 (40.4%) 17052 (31.4%) - 11113 (24.4%) 16937 (39.9%) - 12481 (30.4%) 10335 (24.8%) - 7616 (19.5%) 8316 (23.3%) - 5851 (18.4%) 4747 (14.3%) - 4682 (12.8%) 4916 (32.8%) - 4798 (28.5%) 234744 (25.6%) - 154424 (20.8%)
 [90,99] 15057 (3.9%) - 4313 (1.7%) 3089 (1.7%) - 1486 (1.0%) 2840 (3.9%) - 1287 (1.8%) 5848 (9.7%) - 1770 (3.8%) 2292 (4.2%) - 757 (1.7%) 2939 (6.9%) - 1005 (2.4%) 1326 (3.2%) - 531 (1.4%) 882 (2.5%) - 320 (1.0%) 174 (0.5%) - 134 (0.4%) 664 (4.4%) - 379 (2.3%) 35111 (3.8%) - 11982 (1.6%)
MEDEA:
 R 82025 (22.7%) - 54244 (21.6%) 33553 (20.0%) - 29758 (19.8%) 15314 (22.7%) - 15667 (22.0%) 12276 (23.5%) - 9279 (20.7%) 9282 (19.1%) - 7490 (17.1%) 8888 (23.7%) - 8089 (20.4%) 7512 (19.4%) - 7006 (18.6%) 6396 (19.8%) - 5650 (18.4%) 4888 (15.4%) - 5456 (15.4%) 2115 (15.3%) - 2350 (14.5%) 182249 (21.4%) - 144989 (20.1%)
 U1 67060 (18.6%) - 47089 (18.8%) 26625 (15.9%) - 23782 (15.8%) 10987 (16.3%) - 11839 (16.6%) 8247 (15.8%) - 7255 (16.2%) 7144 (14.7%) - 6673 (15.2%) 6691 (17.8%) - 7247 (18.3%) 5657 (14.6%) - 5535 (14.7%) 5534 (17.1%) - 5400 (17.6%) 4306 (13.5%) - 4983 (14.1%) 2540 (18.4%) - 2975 (18.3%) 144791 (17.0%) - 122778 (17.0%)
 U2 58542 (16.2%) - 41383 (16.5%) 27027 (16.1%) - 24586 (16.3%) 10976 (16.3%) - 11809 (16.6%) 8048 (15.4%) - 7160 (16.0%) 7442 (15.3%) - 7043 (16.0%) 5862 (15.6%) - 6555 (16.6%) 6062 (15.6%) - 5999 (15.9%) 5202 (16.1%) - 5056 (16.4%) 4964 (15.6%) - 5641 (15.9%) 2306 (16.7%) - 2806 (17.3%) 136431 (16.0%) - 118038 (16.4%)
 U3 57967 (16.0%) - 40622 (16.2%) 27628 (16.5%) - 25111 (16.7%) 10665 (15.8%) - 11607 (16.3%) 8076 (15.5%) - 7179 (16.0%) 8077 (16.6%) - 7486 (17.1%) 6116 (16.3%) - 6568 (16.6%) 6409 (16.5%) - 6301 (16.7%) 5192 (16.1%) - 5090 (16.6%) 5745 (18.1%) - 6362 (18.0%) 2347 (17.0%) - 2796 (17.2%) 138222 (16.2%) - 119122 (16.5%)
 U4 52828 (14.6%) - 37452 (14.9%) 27931 (16.6%) - 25006 (16.6%) 10526 (15.6%) - 10980 (15.4%) 7832 (15.0%) - 6990 (15.6%) 8361 (17.2%) - 7777 (17.7%) 5329 (14.2%) - 5952 (15.0%) 6730 (17.4%) - 6644 (17.6%) 5194 (16.1%) - 4974 (16.2%) 6003 (18.9%) - 6580 (18.6%) 2254 (16.3%) - 2724 (16.8%) 132988 (15.6%) - 115079 (16.0%)
 U5 42956 (11.9%) - 30178 (12.0%) 25050 (14.9%) - 22140 (14.7%) 8855 (13.2%) - 9253 (13.0%) 7775 (14.9%) - 6880 (15.4%) 8236 (17.0%) - 7432 (16.9%) 4686 (12.5%) - 5164 (13.0%) 6378 (16.5%) - 6282 (16.6%) 4805 (14.9%) - 4572 (14.9%) 5894 (18.5%) - 6379 (18.0%) 2248 (16.3%) - 2593 (16.0%) 116883 (13.7%) - 100873 (14.0%)
N. Chronic diseases, median [IQR]: 4.0 [2.0;5.0] - 5.0 [3.0;6.0] 6.0 [5.0;8.0] - 8.0 [6.0;9.0] 7.0 [5.0;8.0] - 8.0 [6.0;10.0] 9.0 [7.0;11.0] - 10.0 [8.0;12.0] 8.0 [7.0;10.0] - 10.0 [8.0;12.0] 7.0 [5.0;9.0] - 9.0 [6.0;11.0] 7.0 [5.0;9.0] - 9.0 [7.0;11.0] 7.0 [5.0;9.0] - 8.0 [6.0;11.0] 9.0 [7.0;10.0] - 10.0 [9.0;12.0] 11.0 [10.0;13.0] - 13.0 [11.0;15.0] 6.0 [4.0;8.0] - 7.0 [5.0;10.0]
N. Chronic diseases (n,%):
 0 25380 (6.6%) - 6584 (2.5%) 0 (0.0%) - 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) - 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) - 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) - 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) - 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) - 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) - 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) - 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) - 0 (0.0%) 25380 (2.8%) - 6584 (0.9%)
 1 36254 (9.4%) - 13650 (5.3%) 353 (0.2%) - 86 (0.1%) 628 (0.9%) - 198 (0.3%) 0 (0.0%) - 1 (0.0%) 6 (0.0%) - 0 (0.0%) 296 (0.7%) - 100 (0.2%) 231 (0.6%) - 76 (0.2%) 386 (1.1%) - 116 (0.4%) 0 (0.0%) - 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) - 0 (0.0%) 38154 (4.2%) - 14227 (1.9%)
 [ 2, 5) 201282 (52.3%) - 108605 (42.0%) 30742 (17.4%) - 11516 (7.4%) 13785 (19.1%) - 7640 (10.4%) 1809 (3.0%) - 549 (1.2%) 1974 (3.6%) - 506 (1.1%) 6032 (14.2%) - 3276 (8.0%) 5751 (13.8%) - 2428 (6.2%) 6751 (18.9%) - 3105 (9.8%) 698 (2.1%) - 173 (0.5%) 12 (0.1%) - 1 (0.0%) 268836 (29.3%) - 137799 (18.5%)
 [ 5,10) 120673 (31.4%) - 126309 (48.8%) 132238 (74.7%) - 111530 (72.0%) 47338 (65.6%) - 44773 (61.1%) 32584 (54.1%) - 17095 (37.0%) 34571 (63.6%) - 19151 (42.1%) 25615 (60.4%) - 21911 (53.3%) 25450 (61.1%) - 20204 (51.9%) 21261 (59.6%) - 17305 (54.5%) 20365 (61.2%) - 13811 (37.8%) 3614 (24.1%) - 1583 (9.4%) 463709 (50.6%) - 393672 (52.9%)
 ≥10 1198 (0.3%) - 3552 (1.4%) 13754 (7.8%) - 31876 (20.6%) 10439 (14.5%) - 20626 (28.2%) 25799 (42.9%) - 28599 (61.8%) 17773 (32.7%) - 25806 (56.8%) 10479 (24.7%) - 15833 (38.5%) 10212 (24.5%) - 16253 (41.7%) 7294 (20.4%) - 11218 (35.3%) 12220 (36.7%) - 22538 (61.7%) 11372 (75.8%) - 15244 (90.6%) 120540 (13.2%) - 191545 (25.8%)
N. of drugs, median [IQR]: 3.0 [1.0;5.0] - 3.0 [1.0;5.0] 6.0 [3.0;8.0] - 6.0 [4.0;8.0] 5.0 [3.0;8.0] - 5.0 [3.0;8.0] 8.0 [6.0;11.0] - 8.0 [6.0;11.0] 8.0 [5.0;10.0] - 6.0 [8.0;10.0] 7.0 [4.0;10.0] - 7.0 [4.0;9.0] 7.0 [4.0;10.0] - 7.0 [4.0;10.0] 5.0 [3.0;8.0] - 5.0 [3.0;8.0] 6.0 [4.0;9.0] - 6.0 [4.0;9.0] 8.0 [5.0;11.0] - 8.0 [5.0;10.0] 5.0 [2.0;8.0] - 5.0 [3.0;8.0]
N. of drugs (n,%):
 0 82698 (21.5%) - 41989 (16.2%) 9688 (5.5%) - 5355 (3.5%) 5408 (7.5%) - 3759 (5.1%) 2540 (4.2%) - 761 (1.6%) 2186 (4.0%) - 800 (1.8%) 2815 (6.6%) - 1463 (3.6%) 2366 (5.7%) - 1293 (3.3%) 3597 (10.1%) - 2199 (6.9%) 1473 (4.4%) - 1068 (2.9%) 597 (4.0%) - 265 (1.6%) 113368 (12.4%) - 58952 (7.9%)
 1 39683 (10.3%) - 28971 (11.2%) 6639 (3.7%) - 5728 (3.7%) 3467 (4.8%) - 3626 (5.0%) 505 (0.8%) - 353 (0.8%) 929 (1.7%) - 624 (1.4%) 1161 (2.7%) - 1257 (3.1%) 1246 (3.0%) - 1222 (3.1%) 2083 (5.8%) - 1822 (5.7%) 1159 (3.5%) - 1305 (3.6%) 210 (1.4%) - 283 (1.7%) 57082 (6.2%) - 45191 (6.1%)
 [ 2, 5) 139450 (36.2%) - 103534 (40.0%) 50256 (28.4%) - 44740 (28.9%) 20200 (28.0%) - 21352 (29.2%) 5388 (9.0%) - 4602 (10.0%) 7380 (13.6%) - 5880 (12.9%) 7802 (18.4%) - 8612 (20.9%) 8616 (20.7%) - 8192 (21.0%) 9676 (27.1%) - 9006 (28.4%) 7912 (23.8%) - 8811 (24.1%) 1987 (13.2%) - 2570 (15.3%) 258667 (28.2%) - 217299 (29.2%)
 [ 5,10) 108886 (28.3%) - 76263 (29.5%) 88542 (50.0%) - 79758 (51.5%) 32682 (45.3%) - 34143 (46.6%) 28606 (47.5%) - 23462 (50.7%) 26833 (49.4%) - 23058 (50.7%) 19941 (47.0%) - 20083 (48.8%) 18623 (44.7%) - 18442 (47.3%) 14879 (41.7%) - 13799 (43.5%) 16599 (49.9%) - 18510 (50.7%) 7090 (47.3%) - 8278 (49.2%) 362681 (39.6%) - 315796 (42.5%)
 ≥10 14070 (3.7%) - 7943 (3.1%) 21962 (12.4%) - 19427 (12.5%) 10433 (14.5%) - 10357 (14.1%) 23153 (38.5%) - 17066 (36.9%) 16996 (31.3%) - 15101 (33.2%) 10703 (25.2%) - 9705 (23.6%) 10793 (25.9%) - 9812 (25.2%) 5457 (15.3%) - 4918 (15.5%) 6140 (18.4%) - 6828 (18.7%) 5114 (34.1%) - 5432 (32.3%) 124821 (13.6%) - 106589 (14.3%)
N. of visits, median [IQR]: 7.0 [3.0;12.0] - 7.0 [3.0;12.0] 10.0 [6.0;16.0] - 10.0 [6.0;16.0] 10.0 [6.0;17.0] - 10.0 [6.0;18.0] 20.0 [11.0;32.0] - 22.0 [11.0;34.0] 14.0 [9.0;23.0] - 15.0 [9.0;25.0] 12.0 [7.0;20.0] - 12.0 [7.0;21.0] 12.0 [7.0;20.0] - 12.0 [7.0;20.0] 11.0 [6.0;19.0] - 11.0 [6.0;19.0] 12.0 [8.0;19.0] - 12.0 [8.0;19.0] 15.0 [9.0;23.0] - 15.0 [9.0;24.0] 9.0 [5.0;16.0] - 10.0 [5.0;17.0]
N. of visits (n,%):
 0 36975 (9.6%) - 17397 (6.7%) 3722 (2.1%) - 2380 (1.5%) 1839 (2.5%) - 1335 (1.8%) 863 (1.4%) - 390 (0.8%) 763 (1.4%) - 395 (0.9%) 1147 (2.7%) - 780 (1.9%) 779 (1.9%) - 544 (1.4%) 1205 (3.4%) - 749 (2.4%) 390 (1.2%) - 311 (0.9%) 262 (1.7%) - 131 (0.8%) 47945 (5.2%) - 24412 (3.3%)
 1 23812 (6.2%) - 14629 (5.7%) 3649 (2.1%) - 3624 (2.3%) 1830 (2.5%) - 1922 (2.6%) 649 (1.1%) - 498 (1.1%) 629 (1.2%) - 568 (1.2%) 1051 (2.5%) - 1013 (2.5%) 749 (1.8%) - 672 (1.7%) 1043 (2.9%) - 866 (2.7%) 315 (0.9%) - 417 (1.1%) 157 (1.0%) - 187 (1.1%) 33884 (3.7%) - 24396 (3.3%)
 [ 2, 5) 77936 (20.3%) - 54464 (21.1%) 20693 (11.7%) - 18928 (12.2%) 9076 (12.6%) - 9669 (13.2%) 3064 (5.1%) - 2534 (5.5%) 3739 (6.9%) - 3050 (6.7%) 4606 (10.9%) - 4510 (11.0%) 3793 (9.1%) - 3558 (9.1%) 4310 (12.1%) - 3938 (12.4%) 2386 (7.2%) - 2866 (7.8%) 836 (5.6%) - 1104 (6.6%) 130439 (14.2%) - 104621 (14.1%)
 [ 5, 10) 117379 (30.5%) - 82678 (32.0%) 52731 (29.8%) - 46906 (30.3%) 20119 (27.9%) - 20721 (28.3%) 8287 (13.8%) - 5948 (12.9%) 10988 (20.2%) - 9136 (20.1%) 9698 (22.9%) - 9891 (24.1%) 10028 (24.1%) - 9391 (24.1%) 9029 (25.3%) - 8329 (26.2%) 8278 (24.9%) - 8991 (24.6%) 2812 (18.7%) - 3234 (19.2%) 249349 (27.2%) - 205225 (27.6%)
 ≥10 128685 (33.4%) - 89532 (34.6%) 96292 (54.4%) - 83170 (53.7%) 39326 (54.5%) - 39590 (54.1%) 47329 (78.6%) - 36874 (79.7%) 38205 (70.3%) - 32314 (71.1%) 25920 (61.1%) - 24926 (60.6%) 26295 (63.1%) - 24796 (63.6%) 20105 (56.3%) - 17862 (56.3%) 21914 (65.8%) - 23937 (65.5%) 10931 (72.9%) - 12172 (72.3%) 455002 (49.7%) - 385173 (51.8%)