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Table 3 The estimated costs of medications in a 12 month period amongst participants prescribed a potentially inappropriate medication

From: Costs of potentially inappropriate medication use in residential aged care facilities

All participants who were prescribed at least one PIMa (n = 434) Costs (AUD$), mean (SD) Proportion of total PIM costs, mean % (SD)
Total PIMs cost 410.89 (479.45)
Daily PIMs cost 0.92 (1.26)
Cost of PIMs by type of medication
Antidepressants 8.21 (32.63) 2.1 (9.2)
Antihistaminesc 0.87 (12.60) 0.4 (5.5)
Anti-infective 8.30 (44.17) 2.1 (10.8)
Antiparkinsonian agents 0.37 (5.99) 0.1 (1.2)
Antispasmodics 0.83 (16.09) 0.2 (2.8)
Antipsychotics 85.11 (202.83) 21.0 (33.6)
Antithrombotics 8.57 (53.79) 1.6 (10.3)
Benzodiazepines 54.78 (93.58) 18.7 (29.1)
Cardiovasculard 5.40 (26.16) 4.8 (19.8)
Central alpha blockers 3.45 (29.98) 0.5 (5.9)
Endocrine 77.23 (382.14) 7.4 (22.5)
Gastrointestinale 6.30 (38.54) 3.0 (13.6)
Pain medications 10.23 (54.50) 3.4 (15.2)
Peripheral alpha-1 blockers 1.71 (13.82) 0.4 (3.8)
Proton-pump inhibitors 139.54 (163.58) 34.4 (38.3)
Participants with cognitive impairment or dementia who were prescribed at least one PIMb (n = 375)
Total PIMs cost 416.93 (499.86)
Daily PIMs cost 1.14 (1.37)
Cost of PIMs by type of medication
Antidepressants 6.66 (31.34) 1.6 (8.3)
Antiemetic 9.24 (58.76) 1.5 (8.6)
Antihistamines 4.83 (38.06) 1.3 (8.9)
Anti-infective 8.72 (46.04) 2.2 (11.2)
Antimuscarinics 3.15 (22.88) 1.0 (7.0)
Antiparkinsonian agents 0.31 (6.09) 0.03 (0.7)
Antispasmodics 0.96 (17.31) 0.2 (3.1)
Antipsychotics 93.76 (211.87) 22.7 (34.1)
Antithrombotics 6.84 (46.89) 1.3 (8.8)
Benzodiazepines 50.59 (89.44) 17.3 (28.0)
Cardiovasculard 5.62 (27.61) 4.9 (20.3)
Central alpha blockers 3.29 (29.33) 0.5 (6.1)
Endocrine 74.39 (394.53) 6.8 (21.8)
Gastrointestinale 6.11 (37.88) 3.0 (13.6)
H2-receptor antagonists 4.60 (27.99) 1.6 (10.3)
Pain medications 10.39 (56.89) 3.2 (14.6)
Peripheral alpha-1 blockers 1.42 (12.74) 0.3 (3.6)
Proton-pump inhibitors 126.07 (156.35) 30.5 (36.3)
  1. aIncludes all study participants with complete medication data exposed to a PIM in the 12 month period; PIMs were based on the Beers Criteria for all older adults
  2. bParticipants with cognitive impairment and dementia: sub-group analysis includes participants with a PAS-Cog score > 4 or a formal diagnosis of dementia exposed to a PIM in the 12 month period; PIMs were based on the standard list of PIMs from the Beers Criteria for all older adults and the additional list of PIMs from the Beers Criteria for people with cognitive impairment and dementia
  3. All costs are based on Dispensed Price for Maximum Quantity (DPMQ) pricing from the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS). cOnly first generation antihistamines are considered for PIMs for all older adults; ddigoxin, nifedipine and amiodarone; emetoclopramide