Lazarou J, Pomeranz BH, Corey PN: Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalised patients: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. JAMA. 1998, 279: 1200-5. 10.1001/jama.279.15.1200.
Mangoni AA, Jackson SH: Age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics: basic principles and practical applications. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2004, 57: 6-14. 10.1046/j.1365-2125.2003.02007.x.
Nelson EA, Dannefer D: Aged heterogeneity: fact or fiction? The fate of diversity in gerontological research. Gerontologist. 1992, 32: 17-23. 10.1159/000116781.
Woodhouse KW, O'Mahony MS: Frailty and ageing. Age Ageing. 1997, 26: 245-46. 10.1093/ageing/26.4.245.
Spinewine A, Schmader KE, Barber N, Hughes C, Lapane KL, Swine C, Hanlon JT: Appropriate prescribing in elderly people: how well can it be measured and optimised?. Lancet. 2007, 370: 173-84. 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61091-5.
Lindley CM, Tully MP, Paramsothy V, Tallis RC: Inappropriate medication is a major cause of adverse drug reactions in elderly patients. Age Ageing. 1992, 21: 294-300. 10.1093/ageing/21.4.294.
Lau DT, Kasper JD, Potter DE, Lyles A, Bennett RG: Hospitalization and death associated with potentially inappropriate medication prescriptions among elderly nursing home residents. Arch Intern Med. 2005, 165: 68-74. 10.1001/archinte.165.1.68.
Gurwitz JH, Field TS, Avorn J, McCormick D, Jain S, Eckler M, Benser M, Edmondson AC, Bates DW: Incidence and preventability of adverse drug events in nursing homes. Am J Med. 2000, 209: 87-94. 10.1016/S0002-9343(00)00451-4.
Klarin I, Wimo A, Fastbom J: The association of inappropriate drug use with hospitalisation and mortality: a population based study of the very old. Drugs Aging. 2005, 22 (1): 69-82. 10.2165/00002512-200522010-00005.
Beers MH, Ouslander JG, Rollingher I, Reuben DB, Brooks J, Beck JC: Explicit criteria for determining inappropriate medication use in nursing home residents. Arch Intern Med. 1991, 151: 1825-32. 10.1001/archinte.151.9.1825.
Beers MH: Explicit criteria for determining potentially inappropriate medication use by the elderly. An update. Arch Intern Med. 1997, 157: 1531-36. 10.1001/archinte.157.14.1531.
Fick DM, Cooper JW, Wade WE, Waller JL, MacLean JR, Beers MH: Updating the Beers Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults – Results of a US Consensus Panel of Experts. Arch Intern Med. 2003, 163: 2716-24. 10.1001/archinte.163.22.2716.
Gallagher P, Ryan C, Byrne S, Kennedy J, O'Mahony D: STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions) and START (Screening Tool to Alert Doctors to Right Treatment): Consensus Validation. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008, 46 (2): 72-83.
Barry PJ, Gallagher P, Ryan C, O'Mahony D: START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to the Right Treatment) – an evidence-based screening tool to detect prescribing omissions in elderly patients. Age Ageing. 2007, 36: 628-631. 10.1093/ageing/afm118.
Hanlon JT, Schmader KE, Samsa GP, Weinberger M, Uttech KM, Lewis IK, Cohen HJ, Feussner JR: A method for assessing drug therapy appropriateness. J Clin Epidemiol. 1992, 45: 1045-51. 10.1016/0895-4356(92)90144-C.
Willcox SM, Himmelstein DU, Woolhandler S: Inappropriate drug prescribing for the community-dwelling elderly. JAMA. 1994, 272: 292-296. 10.1001/jama.272.4.292.
Dhall J, Larrat EP, Laplane KL: Use of potentially inappropriate drugs in nursing homes. Pharmacotherapy. 2002, 22: 88-96. 10.1592/phco.126.96.36.199503.
Council of Europe. Committee of experts on management of safety and quality in health care (SP-SQS): Expert group on safe medication practices. Glossary of terms related to patient and medication safety 2005. [http://www.who.int/patientsafety/highlights/COE_patient_and_medication_safety_gl.pdf]
Hanlon JT, Schmader KE, Koronkowski MJ, Weinberger M, Landsman PB, Samsa GP, Lewis IK: Adverse drug events in high risk older outpatients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1997, 45: 945-948.
Onder G, Pedone C, Landi F, Cesari M, Della Vedova C, Bernabei R, Gambassi G: Adverse drug reactions as a cause of hospital admissions: results from the Italian Group of Pharmacoepidemiology in the Elderly (GIFA). J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002, 50: 1962-10.1046/j.1532-5415.2002.50607.x.
Naranjo CA, Busto U, Sellers EM, Sandor P, Ruiz I, Roberts EA, Janecek E, Domecq C, Greenblatt DJ: A method for estimating the probability of adverse drug reactions. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1981, 30: 239-45.
Hallas J, Harvald B, Gram LF, Grodum E, Brøsen K, Haghfelt T, Damsbo N: Drug related hospital admissions: the role of definitions and intensity of data collection and the possibility of prevention. J Intern Med. 1990, 228: 83-90.
Rask KJ, Wells KJ, Teitel GS, Hawley JN, Richards C, Gazmararian JA: Can an algorithm for inappropriate prescribing predict adverse drug events?. Am J Manag Care. 2005, 11: 145-51.
Page RL, Ruskin JM: The risk of adverse drug events and hospital-related morbidity and mortality among older adults with potentially inappropriate medication use. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2006, 4: 297-305. 10.1016/j.amjopharm.2006.12.008.
Laroche ML, Charmes JP, Nouaille Y, Picard B, Merle L: Is inappropriate medication use a major cause of adverse drug reactions in the elderly?. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2007, 63: 177-86. 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2006.02831.x.
Budnitz DS, Shehab N, Kegler SR, Richards CL: Medication use leading to emergency department visits for adverse drug events in older adults. Ann Intern Med. 2007, 147: 755-65.
Gallagher P, O'Mahony D: STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Persons' potentially inappropriate Prescriptions) application to acutely ill elderly patients and comparison with Beers' criteria. Age Ageing. 2008, 37: 673-9. 10.1093/ageing/afn197.
Schmader KE, Hanlon JT, Pieper CF, Sloane R, Ruby CM, Twersky J, Francis SD, Branch LG, Lindblad CI, Artz M, Weinberger M, Feussner JR, Cohen HJ: Effects of geriatric evaluation and management on adverse drug reactions and suboptimal prescribing in the frail elderly. Am J Med. 2004, 116: 394-401. 10.1016/j.amjmed.2003.10.031.
Hanlon JT, Weinberger M, Samsa GP, Schmader KE, Uttech KM, Lewis IK, Cowper PA, Landsman PB, Cohen HJ, Feussner JR: A randomised, controlled trial of a clinical pharmacist intervention to improve inappropriate prescribing in elderly outpatients with polypharmacy. Am J Med. 1996, 100: 428-37. 10.1016/S0002-9343(97)89519-8.
Pimlott NJ, Hux JE, Wilson LM, Kahan M, Li C, Rosser WW: Educating physicians to reduce benzodiazepine use by elderly patients: a randomised controlled trial. CMAJ. 2003, 168: 835-39.
Tamblyn R, Huang A, Perreault R, Jacques A, Roy D, Hanley J, McLeod P, Laprise R: The medical office of the 21st century (MOXXI): effectiveness of computerized decision-making support in reducing inappropriate prescribing in primary care. CMAJ. 2003, 169: 549-56.