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Table 3 Pre- and post-test performance for SB and SBC , differences between groups and interaction effects

From: Strength-balance supplemented with computerized cognitive training to improve dual task gait and divided attention in older adults: a multicenter randomized-controlled trial

  SBgroup SBCgroup Pre-post differences (both groups) Between-groups differences Interaction effect
  Pre-test (mean ± SD) Post-test (mean ± SD) Pre-test (mean ± SD) Post-test (mean ± SD) p within2 p between2 p interaction2
Simple RT        
RT right hand 362.7 ± 94.8 300.9 ± 57.3 383.0 ± 129.4 318.2 ± 69.0 <0.001*/0.323 0.108/0.014 0.820/0
RT left hand 362.6 ± 88.8 298.4 ± 56.0 374.4 ± 109.6 318.2 ± 74.6 <0.001*/0.339 0.145/0.012 0.524/0.002
RT right foot 423.5 ± 119.3 345.9 ± 67.2 472.5 ± 218.1 380.9 ± 101.1 <0.001*/0.273 0.016*/0.032 0.500/0.003
RT left foot 410.1 ± 110.0 354.3 ± 83.4 442.2 ± 158.7 370.0 ± 82.8 <0.001*/0.261 0.105/0.015 0.312/0.006
Fear of falling        
FES-I 25.4 ± 8.0 22.8 ± 7.0 26.8 ± 9.6 24.6 ± 8.5 <0.001*/0.159 0.157/0.011 0.637/0.001
Executive functions        
TMT A 83.4 ± 51.4 71.2 ± 47.3 81.5 ± 51.3 69.5 ± 43.4 <0.001*/0.143 0.795/0 0.969/0
TMT B 188.5 ± 73.0 166.3 ± 75.0 189.5 ± 78.8 164.4 ± 76.9 <0.001*/0.207 0.964/0 0.772/0.001
Divided attention        
RT upper channel 940.1 ± 170.0 885.7 ± 169.9 1014.0 ± 209.7 907.4 ± 211.3 <0.001*/0.217 0.066°/0.019 0.023*/0.028
RT lower channel 976.7 ± 181.5 893.1 ± 169.2 1012.3 ± 25.0 889.8 ± 204.9 <0.001*/0.292 0.542/0.002 0.105/0.015
MA upper channel 10.7 ± 4.6 10.1 ± 5.0 13.3 ± 5.9 10.0 ± 5.5 <0.001*/0.082 0.064°/0.019 0.001*/0.062
MA lower channel 13.5 ± 5.8 11.5 ± 5.7 15.0 ± 7.2 11.4 ± 6.2 <0.001*/0.161 0.379/0.004 0.094°/0.015
  1. Notes: *significant within-groups differences pre-post (p within ≤ 0.05), significant between-groups differences (p between ≤ 0.05) & significant interactions of the groups (p interaction ≤ 0.05); °trends to significant within-groups differences pre-post (0.05 ≥ p within ≤ 0.10) & trends to significant interactions of the groups (0.05 ≥ p interaction ≤ 0.10);, calculated with ANOVA. Abbreviations: η2 effect size η2 = .01, small effect, η2 = .06; moderate effect, η2 = .14; large effect, RT reaction time, FES-I Falls Efficacy Scale-International, MA missed answers.