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Table 2 Dual task costs of walking of SB and SBC from pre- to post-test, between-groups differences and interaction effects

From: Strength-balance supplemented with computerized cognitive training to improve dual task gait and divided attention in older adults: a multicenter randomized-controlled trial

  SBgroup (n = 77) SBCgroup (n = 74) pre-post differences (both groups) between-groups differences interaction effect
Conditions Parameters Pre-test (mean ± SD) Post-test (mean ± SD) Pre-test (mean ± SD) Post-test (mean ± SD) pwithin/η2 pbetween/η2 pinteraction/η2
DTC preferred        
Velocity (%) 13.9 ± 17.8 12.2 ± 15.0 17.5 ± 18.4 11.0 ± 17.5 0.002*/0.051 0.588/0.002 0.067°/0.019
Step time (%) 12.0 ± 25.2 9.6 ± 14.4 31.3 ± 88.7 10.0 ± 18.7 0.018*/0.033 0.061°/0.021 0.061°/0.021
Step length (%) 6.6 ± 9.0 6.6 ± 8.4 7.4 ± 9.7 4.4 ± 9.5 0.025*/0.028 0.558/0.002 0.028*/0.028
SD step length (%) 28.7 ± 53.2 27.9 ± 54.2 24.7 ± 50.4 18.0 ± 51.7 0.426/0.004 0.298/0.007 0.531/0.002
DTC fast        
Velocity (%) 26.5 ± 13.2 21.9 ± 9.0 28.6 ± 13.3 22.7 ± 13.1 <0.001*/0.126 0.355/0.005 0.545/0.002
Step time (%) 23.1 ± 24.5 17.2 ± 10.1 18.8 ± 12.7 17.5 ± 17.2 0.035*/0.028 0.368/0.005 0.177/0.012
Step length (%) 10.8 ± 8.5 10.3 ± 6.7 13.1 ± 8.5 9.8 ± 8.3 0.001*/0.073 0.426/0.004 0.009*/0.040
SD step length (%) 17.1 ± 34.9 50.3 ± 150.1 25.1 ± 54.7 20.1 ± 43.2 0.311/0.006 0.625/0.001 0.014*/0.036
  1. Notes: * = significant within-groups differences pre-post (pwithin ≤ 0.05) & significant interactions of the groups (pinteraction ≤ 0.05); ° = trends to significant within-groups differences pre-post (0.05 ≥ pwithin ≤ 0.10), calculated with ANOVA. Abbreviations: DTC dual task costs, η2: effect size η2 = .01; small effect, η2 = .06; moderate effect, η2 = .14; large effect.