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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study cohort at Frail-VIG0 time point (i.e., one month before admission)

From: Transitions between degrees of multidimensional frailty among older people admitted to intermediate care: a multicentre prospective study

Variable All
n = 483
Frailty status a p-value
No
frailty
n = 115
Mild
frailty
n = 187
Intermediate frailty
n = 122
Advanced frailty
n = 59
Age, mean (SD) 81.28(10.21) 79.97(9.22) 80.74(10.90) 82.46(10.58) 83.06(8.63) 0.120
Sex, women (%) 260(53.80) 64(55.65) 101(54.01) 64(52.46) 31(52.54) 0.962
Usual habitat(%)
 with family 317(65.63) 74(64.34) 120(64.17) 86(70.49) 37(62.71) 0.623
 with caregiver 23(4.76) 1(0.86) 7(3.74) 8(6.56) 7(3.74) 0.008
 Alone 116(24.02) 40(34.78) 56(29.95) 16(13.11) 4(6.77)  < 0.001
 Nursing Home 27(5.59) 0(0.00) 4(2.14) 12(9.83) 11(18.64)  < 0.001
Unit of income (%)
 Palliative care unit 190(39.34) 40(34.78) 83(44.39) 42(34.43) 25(42.37) 0.216
 Rehabilitation unit 113(23.40) 40(34.78) 40(21.39) 25(20.49) 8(13.56) 0.006
 Psicogeriatric unit 79(16.36) 6(5.21) 23(12.30) 35(28.69) 15(25.42)  < 0.001
 Hospital-at-home unit 49(10.14) 23(20.00) 20(10.70) 5(4.10) 1(1.69)  < 0.001
 HSJ 52(10.76) 6(5.22) 21(11.23) 15(12.30) 10(16.95) 0.095
 Stay average. Median (IQR) 20(25) 21(26) 21(28) 21(25) 14(20) 0.113
Individual variablesb
 IADLs (0–3), mean (SD) 1.35 (1.28) 0.17 (0.46) 1.00 (1.10) 2.36 (0.88) 2.76 (0.54)  < 0.001
 Barthel index (0–100), mean (SD) 76.84(25.64) 91.31(17.93) 86.03(15.86) 64.19(25.54) 42.26(25.23)  < 0.001
 Malnutrition (%) 135(27.85) 17(14.78) 47(25.13) 39(31.98) 33(55.93)  < 0.001
 Cognitive impairment (%) 158(32.71) 2(1.74) 41(221.93) 65(53.28) 50(84.75)  < 0.001
 Depressive syndrome (%) 139(28.78) 11(9.57) 44(23.53) 53(43.44) 31(52.54)  < 0.001
 Insomnia/anxiety (%) 225(46.58) 24(20.87) 85(45.45) 76(62.30) 40(67.80)  < 0.001
 Social vulnerability (%) 74(15.32) 4(3.48) 29(15.51) 23(18.85) 18(30.51)  < 0.001
 Delirium (%) 67(13.87) 0(0.00) 10(5.35) 29(23.77) 28(47.46)  < 0.001
 Falls (%) 99(20.49) 6(6.06) 39(39.39) 37(37.37) 17(17.18) 0.004
 Ulcers (%) 51(10.55) 6(5.22) 16(8.56) 16(13.11) 13(22.03) 0.004
 Polypharmacy (%) 389(80.54) 68(59.13) 160(85.56) 104(85.25) 57(96.61)  < 0.001
 Dysphagia (%) 76(15.73) 2(1.74) 16(8.56) 20(16.39) 38(64.41)  < 0.001
 Pain (%) 117(24.22) 8(6.96) 58(31.02) 32(26.23) 19(32.20)  < 0.001
 Dyspnea (%) 46(9.52) 1(0.87) 15(8.02) 19(15.57) 11(18.64)  < 0.001
 Cancer (%) 121(25.05) 24(20.87) 60(32.08) 23(18.85) 14(23.73) 0.036
 Chronic respiratory disease(%) 110(22.77) 22(19.13) 41(21.93) 36(29.51) 11(18.64) 0.198
 Chronic Cardiac disease (%) 217(44.92) 34(29.57) 75(40.11) 70(57.38) 38(64.41)  < 0.001
 Chronic Neurological disease (%) 65(13.46) 7(6.09) 20(10.70) 21(17.21) 17(28.81)  < 0.001
 Chronic Digestive disease (%) 36(7.45) 2(1.74) 18(9.63) 8(6.56) 8(13.56) 0.018
 Chronic Renal disease (%) 189(39.13) 25(21.74) 70(37.43) 56(45.90) 38(64.41)  < 0.001
  1. aNo frailty (Frail-VIG index score < 0.2), mild frailty (Frail-VIG index score 0.2–0.35), moderate frailty (Frail-VIG index score 0.36–0.5), and advanced frailty (Frail-VIG index score > 0.5)
  2. bCriteria for clinical conditions are defined in the Supplementary Appendix
  3. IADLs Instrumental of activities of daily living (adapted from the Lawto-Brody scale, as described previously) [25]. IQR Interquartile range (25th and 75th percentiles), SD Standard deviation