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Table 3 Changes in functional independence and key outcomes over the 8-week exercise intervention

From: Promoting independence in Lewy body dementia through exercise: the PRIDE study

  n Pre – Intervention Median (range) Post-Intervention Median (range) Wa Sig Median change score (95% Hodges-Lehmann CI)
Functional Independence
MDS-UPDRS total /260 6 78.5 (45–180) 72.5 (33–157) -2.207 0.027 -8 ( -17.5, -2)
 Part I/II sub-score /104   24.5 (13–84) 30.5 (10–69) -1.153 0.074 -3.5 (-10.5, 6)
 Part III sub-score / 132   53 (32–88) 41 (23–79) -1.153 0.249 -7.5 (-12, 1)
 Part IV /24   1 (0–8) 1 (0–9) 1.00 0.317 0 (0, 0.5)
FIM total score /126 6 107 (25–121) 109.5 (19–122) 0.315 0.752 1 (-5, 5.5)
Strength & Physical Function
Leg press 1RM, N 5 1250 (1080–3000) 2000 (1800–3350) 2.023 0.043 600 (350, 850)
 Leg extension 1RM, N·m 5 210 (140–570) 330 (280–720) 2.023 0.043 137 (120, 160)
 Triceps extension 1RM, N   - - - - -
SPPB total score, /12 6 8 (0–12) 12 (0–12) 1.857 0.063 2 (0, 4)
 Sub-scores:
 Balance, /4   4 (0–4) 4 (0–4) 1 0.317 0 (0, 1)
 Gait, /4   3.5 (0—4) 4 (0–4) 1.414 0.157 0.5 (0, 1)
 Sit-to-stand, /4   1.5 (0–4) 4 (0–4) 1.841 0.068 1 (0, 3)
Habitual gait speed, ms−1 5 0.83 (0.5–1.09) 1.01 (0.61–1.39) 1.826 0.068 0.15 (0, 0.3)
Maximal gait speed, ms−1 5 1.5 (0.94–2.38) 1.83 (1.07–2.25) 1.625 0.104 0.19 (-0.13, 0.71)
Five time sit-to-stand, s 5 11.5 (8.1–19.9) 9.6 (6.7–14.9) -2.023 0.043 -3.0 (-5.0, -1.0)
Total balance time, s 6 61.5 (0.0–83.4) 65.5 (0.0–84.3) 2.203 0.043 3.0 (0.4, 7.9)
Average grip strength, kg   - - - - -
Six-minute walk, m 5 505 (217–727) 458 (255–789) 0.674 0.5 44 (-63, 62)
Physical activity
Total daily activity, g/hr 6 116.7 (34.7–186.6) 118.7 (37.4–197.4) 0.105 0.917 1.99 (-12.7, 17.4)
 Proportion of day, %   10.3 (4.75–17.2) 11.5 (4.01–16.9) 0.524 0.6 0.3 (-0.8, 1.5)
Daily walking time, mins   49.5 (6.6–139.2) 51 (1.8–160.2) 1.153 0.249 6.96 (-10.3, 18.5)
 Proportion of day, %   3.45 (0.45–9.68) 3.53 (0.11–11.11) 1.153 0.249 0.5 (-0.7, 1.3)
Step count, n   4617 (455–9327) 4884 (80–11,772) 0.734 0.463 528 (-1889, 2632)
Total bouts of walking, n   163.5 (29.5–317) 190 (5–341) 1.153 0.249 23 (-3.25, 29.5)
Bout lengths
 5 to 10 s, n   89 (19–173) 92 (3–164) -0.105 0.917 -1 (-12.5, 10)
 10 to 20 s, n   47.5 (7–79) 66.5 (2–98) 1.782 0.075 11 (-2, 21.5)
 20 to 30 s, n   13.5 (2.5–28) 16.5 (0–26) 0.105 0.916 0.25 (-2.25, 5)
 30 to 60 s, n   8 (1–23) 10 (0–33) 1.393 0.173 3.5 (-2, 9.5)
 60 to 120 s, n   2 (0–11) 2.5 (0–12) 0.68 0.496 1 (-1.5, 2)
  ≥ 120 s, n   0.5 (0–6) 0 (0–10) 0.272 0.785 0 (-2, 2.5)
Cognition
PD-CRS total score /134 6 62.5 (10–77) 68.5 (16–102) 2.207 0.027 8 (4, 17.5)
 Posterior-cortical /30   26.5 (4–29) 29 (9 -30) 1.841 0.066 2 (0, 4)
 Fronto-cortical /104   36 (6–48) 40 (7–73) 1.892 0.058 6.5 (0, 17)
MMSE total score /30 6 21.5 (3–26) 25 (11–29) 2.207 0.027 4.5 (1.5, 7.5)
  1. Significance values where α < 0.05 are bolded. MDS-UPDRS Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale [21]. Total score includes parts I-IV, Part III is the assessor rated motor score. a Exercise completers includes only the scores of participants who completed the subsequent exercise intervention as per protocol for analysis of the primary outcome. All values a presented as median (range). Higher scores in the MDS-UPDRS; and lower scores on the FIM, MMSE, and PD-CRS indicate worse performance on that measure respectively. 1RM One repetition maximum lift, FIM Functional independence measure [25], MMSE Mini-mental state exam [26], PD-CRS Parkinson’s disease Cognitive rating scale [27], SPPB Short Physical Performance Battery [34], kg kilogram, kgm−1 kg/metre, s second, cm centimeter, N Newton, N·m Newton metre. a W Wilcoxon Signed Rank standardized test statistic