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Table 1 Baseline characteristics stratified by sensory impairment status

From: Association between dual sensory impairment and risk of mortality: a cohort study from the UK Biobank

Baseline characteristics Total NSI VI-only HI-only DSI P value
N 113,563 96,297 2,973 13,560 733  
Age, mean(SD), years 56.8(8.09) 56.3(8.08) 58.3(7.60) 59.9(7.51) 60.9(6.88)  < 0.001
Gender, N(%)       0.026
Female 61,849(54.5) 52,574(54.6) 1,649(55.5) 7,228(53.3) 398(54.3)  
Male 51,714(45.5) 43,723(45.4) 1,324(44.5) 6,332(46.7) 335(45.7)  
Ethnicity, N(%)        < 0.001
White 102,139(89.9) 88,283(91.7) 2,619(88.1) 10,690(78.8) 547(74.6)  
Others 11,424(10.1) 8,014(8.32) 354(11.9) 2,870(21.2) 186(25.4)  
Townsend Index, mean(SD) -0.99(2.98) -1.11(2.92) -0.47(3.21) -0.30(3.22) 0.48(3.43)  < 0.001
Education, N(%)        < 0.001
College/University degree 39,866(35.1) 35,123(36.5) 869(29.2) 3,728(27.5) 146(19.9)  
Without College/University degree 73,697(64.9) 61,174(63.5) 2,104(70.8) 9,832(72.5) 587(80.1)  
Obesity, N(%)        < 0.001
No 85,287(75.5) 72,902(76.1) 2,205(74.9) 9,682(72.0) 498(69.5)  
Yes 27,683(24.5) 22,961(24.0) 739(25.1) 3,764(28.0) 219(30.5)  
Smoking status, N(%)       0.146
Never 62,671(55.4) 53,271(55.5) 1,647(55.6) 7,373(54.7) 380(52.4)  
Prior/current 50,488(44.6) 42,733(44.5) 1,313(44.4) 6,097(45.3) 345(47.6)  
Above moderate/vigorous/walking recommendation, N(%)       0.032
No 16,386(17.6) 13,990(17.6) 404(16.9) 1,869(17.8) 123(22.0)  
Yes 76,516(82.4) 65,472(82.4) 1,994(83.2) 8,615(82.2) 435(78.0)  
History of hyperlipidemia, N(%)        < 0.001
No 61,024(53.7) 52,514(54.5) 1,587(53.4) 6,600(48.7) 323(44.1)  
Yes 52,539(46.3) 43,783(45.5) 1,386(46.6) 6,960(51.3) 410(55.9)  
History of hypertension, N(%)        < 0.001
No 29,195(25.7) 25,726(26.7) 656(22.1) 2,696(19.9) 117(16.0)  
Yes 84,368(74.3) 70,571(73.3) 2,317(77.9) 10,864(80.1) 616(84.0)  
History of diabetes mellitus, N(%)        < 0.001
No 106,223(93.5) 90,730(94.2) 2,751(92.5) 12,108(89.3) 634(86.5)  
Yes 7,340(6.46) 5,567(5.78) 222(7.47) 1,452(10.7) 99(13.5)  
History of cancer, N(%)        < 0.001
No 104,123(92.0) 88,524(92.2) 2,708(91.4) 12,232(90.6) 659(90.7)  
Yes 9,110(8.05) 7,513(7.82) 256(8.64) 1,273(9.43) 68(9.3)  
Overall health status, N(%)        < 0.001
Excellent/good 81,853(72.4) 70,720(73.7) 2,020(68.4) 8,684(64.6) 429(59.1)  
Fair/poor 31,274(27.6) 25,272(26.3) 935(31.6) 4,770(35.4) 297(40.9)  
  1. Abbreviations: NSI Neither sensory impairment, VI Visual impairment, HI Hearing impairment, DSI Dual-sensory impairment, SD Standard deviation