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Table 2 Themes categories, subcategories, codes and meaning units

From: The factors in older adults’ health literacy in the field of physical activity: a qualitative study

Theme Category Subcategory Code Meaning units
Older adults’ health literacy in the field of physical activity Access Facilitators Support of relevant organizations and departments Brochures should be prepared with the help of physical education experts, with which older adults can do sports at home/ There should be extensive publicity on television and in the press / The main source of information for exercising is television, but it is better to put free magazines and brochures in shops or distribute them at home at least once a week.
Cyberspace and social channels Older adults’ participation in meetings and in-person meetings or on virtual channels where sports veterans share their experiences, provide access to information and encourages sports/ I personally get sports content and advice from the internet and we exercise with my family.
Support by family and others We need to get physical activity information from retirees and older adults who are experienced and currently active, who know what exercise is right for older adults and give us the right information/ Family members, especially young people, can get the right information about sports and give it to us.
Positive inner motivations and habituation to sports People who have been interested in sport during their young ages tend to follow sport content and information during their old ages/ Older adults should feel the need to acquire information about physical activity and exercise.
Barriers Economic and social problems Economic problems in society are one of the barriers to accessing information for physical activity/ Older adults are more concerned with family and child problems and less concerned with learning about physical activity.
Insufficient attention of the pertinent organizations to sports When an employee retires, there is no plan for their physical activity and they are discounted from the society/ Older adults’ sports are not a priority for the pertinent organizations/ There should be centers and clubs where older adults can obtain specialized information for physical activity.
Poor belief and attitude towards the benefits of physical activity Older adults who do not understand the benefits and importance of exercise have no desire to pursue resources and engage in physical activity/ If there is no previous interest and positive attitude towards sports in older adults, they would not follow the issues related to sports.
Reading skills Personal attributes Reading power A sports booklet is good for well-educated older adults who understand and practice/ I like writing material, but it is difficult for us, with poor eyesight.
Interest It is difficult to read physical activity texts, but I read these topics because I am interested/ For those who like to read, this is good, but many older adults who are not interested, tend to become bored easily.
Activity habit Individuals who are physically active tend to read materials about physical activity/ Older adults must have the perseverance to read the materials about physical activity/ If an old person has experience and habit of physical activity, they will follow the content.
Quality of writing and content Writing structure Content should make older adults thirsty for reading and have a fascinating representation and images that create enthusiasm in older adults / Appropriate, scientific, simple, concise and attractive information will be useful.
According to need The content should be specialized and tailored to the needs of older adults and complete/ The movements shown in the books should take into account the physical and mental condition of older adults and be safe for their age.
Distribution source characteristics Source validity, frequency and continuity of publication Content should be published periodically rather than temporary. The publication of print media should be continuous, at large-scale and from authoritative and official sources/ References should be provided by expert and well-known people.
Easy and free access It will definitely be useful if the print media is constantly distributed in large quantities and distributed free of charge/ It is better if there are places where older adults can easily and freely access the contents.
Comprehension Facilitators Paying attention to the consequences of having and not having an activity If I do not exercise for a week, my whole body aches and life becomes difficult / With exercise, I do not suffer from depression, loneliness, frustration, low self-esteem, muscle loss, weakness, hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and early death. By doing physical activities, I am always happy, less in need of others, feel valued and useful, and have good relationships with family and others.
Effective training To make older adults person becomes interested and pursues sports, sports content and tips should be fun and entertaining so that older adults can enjoy the practice/The recommender should present the content with good morals, cheerful spirit, sweet and pleasant expression, and sometimes even with humorous language.
Have a positive experience Based on our ability, we will practice sports recommendations at least once and if we have a good experience, we will continue.
Organizational support Individuals are abandoned after retirement, organizations must provide appropriate facilities and programs for recreation, sports, pilgrimage, and tourism, and draw their attention to sports.
Barriers Individual problems Isolation, depression, illness, and stress can prevent you from paying attention and understanding physical activity.
Socio-economic barriers Most retirees have economic problems such as education and employment of their children, they are not comfortable with these problems and cannot think about sports and physical activity.
Evaluation Internal evaluation Background and experience of older adults The best source for assessing the accuracy of the recommendations is older adults themselves, If following an advice makes older adults feel fresh and has a good effect on health, it will be considered valid/ The activity and movement that is recommended to older adults should be appropriate for their condition and should be very simple and light so that they can continue the practice without harming themselves.
External evaluation Confirmation of reliable and experienced people I try to get information from university professors and people around me who are reliable and experienced in sports/ Information from coaches and sports veterans is considered as reliable.
Obtain information from reputable sources I use websites of which I know the coaches from TV shows and books whose authors are experts on sports / To evaluate sports content or recommendations, the first step is to identify and search the source and verify it through retirement and sports organizations.
Decision-making and application of information Individual factors Believe and understand the benefits Older adults’ own beliefs and perceptions of the importance of exercise are involved in making decisions and engaging in physical activity/ Thinking about dealing with physical problems and illnesses in old age and the inability to do one’s work makes one to decide to do physical activity/ By doing physical activity, older adults feel more relaxed and can rely on themselves as much as they can, and avoid becoming a burden on their families.
Positive experience Older adults should follow the recommendations and after receiving a good result, they will definitely decide to continue exercising.
Interpersonal factors Support others Family and friends can encourage older adults to make decisions and exercise by telling them the benefits of exercise
Consultation with experts After consultation with coaches and doctors, we should start with very light movements and beginners’ steps/ Motivation is created by referring to those who have expertise and experience in sports and receive information from them about the benefits of sports.
Interact with active patterns and groups We can go to cultural and sports centers with family, neighbors, and friends and participate in group sports or have a daily walk and exercise program in the park/ Associating and interacting with older athletes create the desire and will to do sports.
Organizational factors Organizational planning and advertising Advertising in various media and planning by the pertinent organizations to keep retirees active is important so that people, after retirement, can have an active package and program to have an active way of life.
Organizational facilities Organizations should provide facilities for the physical activity for older adults by planning and cooperating with retirement centers.
Socio-economic factors Economic situation and family problems One of the most influential factors is the economic and livelihood problems that have plagued many retirees as these problems deprive older adults of the peace of mind and they should think about livelihood instead of sports.
Status of sports venues and spaces in the community Creating and developing sports facilities and spaces in communities play an important role in motivating, making decisions, and performing physical activity by older adults.
  1. Bold entries are significant