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Table 2 Multivariate analysis comparing characteristics of natural teeth & denture-wearing vs edentulous older adults

From: Association between dentition and frailty and cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults

  Edentulous^ (reference category) Natural teeth, no dentures Denture-wearing, with / without natural teeth
Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted
   OR (95% CI) p value OR (95% CI) p value OR (95% CI) p value OR (95% CI) p value
Age 72.9 ± 6.8 0.92 (0.88-0.96) <  0.001 1.03 (0.92-1.2) 0.597 0.95 (0.92-0.99) 0.011 1.03 (0.95-1.1) 0.474
Male 37 (44.6) 1.5 (0.88-2.4) 0.143 0.87 (0.34-2.2) 0.760 0.80 (0.51-1.3) 0.342 0.38 (0.17-0.86) 0.020
Education (years) 3.3 ± 3.6 0.93 (0.86-0.99) 0.047 0.99 (0.77-1.04) 0.163 0.95 (0.90-1.01) 0.062 0.91 (0.84-0.98) 0.015
Cognitive impairment 16 (19.3) 0.28 (0.13-0.60) 0.001 0.14 (0.03-0.75) 0.022 0.56 (0.31-1.01) 0.052 0.29 (0.10-0.84) 0.023
EQ-VAS 75.8 ± 20.6 1.03 (1.01-1.05) <  0.001 1.02 (0.99-1.1) 0.145 1.02 (1.01-1.04) 0.001 1.02 (0.99-1.04) 0.143
Grip strength 21.6 ± 5.7 1.04 (0.99-1.09) 0.112 1.04 (0.97-1.1) 0.302 0.99 (0.96-1.04) 0.846 1.02 (0.95-1.08) 0.606
TUG 12.5 ± 4.7 0.95 (0.87-1.03) 0.221 1.2 (0.98-1.4) 0.083 0.99 (0.93-1.06) 0.803 1.11 (1.0-1.3) 0.053
BMI 24.4 ± 4.3 1.02 (0.96-1.1) 0.501 1.1 (0.95-1.2) 0.278 0.99 (0.93-1.07) 0.862 1.02 (0.93-1.2) 0.640
Multimorbidity 89.0 ± 12.8 0.90 (0.55-1.5) 0.690 1.3 (0.49-3.3) 0.622 1.01 90.64-1.6) 0.949 1.6 (0.73-3.6) 0.236
Ethnicity    0.352   0.761   0.002   0.096
 Chinese 44 (53.0) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Malay 59 (71.1) 1.7 (0.74-3.9) 0.210 1.3 (0.28-6.0) 0.745 0.39 (0.17-0.88) 0.023a 0.31 (0.85-1.3) 0.107
 Indian 8 (9.6) 1.6 (0.69-3.7) 0.276 1.4 (0.31-6.3) 0.665 0.37 (0.16-0.83) 0.016a 0.31 (0.08-1.2) 0.099
 Others 8 (9.6) 1.7 (0.71-3.8) 0.241 2.5 (0.43-15.3) 0.306 0.34 (0.15-0.78) 0.011a 0.33 (0.09-1.3) 0.103
FRAIL 8 (9.6)   0.001   0.004   0.005   0.005
Robust 39 (47.0) 5.8 (2.2-15.1) <  0.001 30.0 (4.0-223) 0.001 3.1 (1.6-6.3) 0.001 7.5 (2.1-2.03) 0.002
Pre-Frail 31 (37.3) 4.0 (1.5-10.6) 0.005 13.7 (2.1-91) 0.007 2.7 (1.3-5.5) 0.007 6.1 (1.8-20.7) 0.003
Frail 13 (15.7) 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0 1.0
≥ 1 IADL Impairment 45 (54.2) 0.61 (0.37-1.01) 0.058 0.46 (0.17-1.2) 0.123 0.54 (0.34-0.85) 0.008 0.47 (0.21-1.04) 0.063
≥ 1 ADL Impairment 21 (25.3) 0.74 (0.4-1.3) 0.325 2.0 (0.52-2.7) 0.309 0.62 (0.37-1.06) 0.080 1.2 (0.38-3.7) 0.765
≥ 2 falls 8 (9.6) 1.07 (0.46-2.5) 0.871 0.79 (0.23-2.7) 0.709 0.90 (0.42-2.0) 0.795 0.65 (0.22-1.9) 0.427
fatigued 16 (19.3) 1.01 (0.53-1.9) 0.964 1.2 (0.36-3.7) 0.808 0.62 (0.35-1.1) 0.105 0.77 (0.31-1.9) 0.566
Weight loss > 5% over 6 months 13 (15.7) 1.1 (0.56-2.3) 0.743 0.68 (0.18-2.5) 0.565 1.3 (0.67-2.4) 0.475 0.61 (0.19-2.0) 0.414
Smoking history 23 (27.7) 1.3 (0.74-2.2) 0.373 1.2 (0.40-3.7) 0.734 1.0 (0.60-1.6) 1.0 1.4 (0.55-3.5) 0.497
  1. Values are expressed as mean ± SD (standard deviation) or n (%). Abbreviations: EQ-VAS European Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale, TUG Timed up and go, BMI Body mass index
  2. aAdjusted for education and age