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Table 3 Comparison of outcome variables of older adults between intervention and control groups at different time points

From: Effects of teach-back health education (TBHE) based on WeChat mini-programs in preventing falls at home for urban older adults in China: a randomized controlled trial

  Dimensions Group (n) T0 (Mean ± SD) T1 (Mean ± SD) Between groups F(p) Within group F(p) Interaction effect F(p)
ANOVA analysisa Total score Intervention (29) 40.52 ± 14.20 56.17 ± 8.13 3.554 (0.065) 159.714 (< 0.001) 0.002 (0.964)
(range of scores:0 ~ 68) Control (30) 35.73 ± 11.31 51.50 ± 8.22
Physiology and disease Intervention (29) 12.55 ± 4.63 14.55 ± 2.84 0.004 (0.949) 31.214 (< 0.001) 2.098 (0.153)
(range of scores:0 ~ 19) Control (30) 11.80 ± 4.02 15.20 ± 2.67
Drug application Intervention (29) 1.72 ± 2.25 5.76 ± 2.15 3.279 (0.075) 82.481 (< 0.001) 6.811 (0.012)
(range of scores:0 ~ 8) Control (30) 1.80 ± 2.06 4.03 ± 2.31
Mental, cognitive, and spiritual well-being Intervention (29) 6.59 ± 3.21 8.86 ± 2.39 2.014 (0.161) 63.205 (< 0.001) 6.262 (0.015)
(range of scores:0 ~ 12) Control (30) 4.80 ± 2.44 9.17 ± 2.12
Lifestyle Intervention (29) 5.17 ± 1.83 7.24 ± 0.91 3.152 (0.081) 67.607 (< 0.001) 1.495 (0.227)
(range of scores:0 ~ 8) Control (30) 4.87 ± 1.63 6.40 ± 1.45
House environment Intervention (29) 14.48 ± 4.86 19.76 ± 1.96 9.381 (0.003) 83.231 (< 0.001) 1.000 (0.321)
(range of scores:0 ~ 21) Control (30) 12.47 ± 4.45 16.70 ± 3.04
  Dimensions Group (n) T0 (t,p) T1 (t,p)    
Comparison between groupsb Total score Intervention (29) 1.433, 0.157 2.194, 0.032    
Control (30)    
Physiology and disease Intervention (29) 0.667, 0.508 −0.904, 0.370    
Control (30)    
Drug application Intervention (29) −0.135, 0.893 2.967, 0.004    
Control (30)    
Mental, cognitive, and spiritual well-being Intervention (29) 2.410, 0.019 −0.519, 0.606    
Control (30)    
Lifestyle Intervention (29) 0.677, 0.501 2.653, 0.010    
Control (30)    
House environment Intervention (29) 1.663, 0.102 4.575, < 0.001    
Control (30)    
  Dimensions Group (n) T0 vs T1 (t,p)     
Comparison within groupsc Total score Intervention (29) −8.344, < 0.001     
Control (30) −9.619, < 0.001     
Physiology and disease Intervention (29) −2.857, 0.008     
Control (30) −5.096, < 0.001     
Drug application Intervention (29) −8.499, < 0.001     
Control (30) −4.468, < 0.001     
Mental, cognitive, and spiritual well-being Intervention (29) −3.448, 0.002     
Control (30) −8.438, < 0.001     
Lifestyle Intervention (29) −6.955, < 0.001     
Control (30) −4.782, < 0.001     
House environment Intervention (29) −7.202, < 0.001     
Control (30) −5.715, < 0.001     
  1. SD Standard deviation
  2. aThe outcomes were based on two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of repeated measures
  3. bThe outcomes were analysed using independent-samples T test
  4. cThe outcomes were analysed using paired-samples T test