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Table 2 Sample characteristics by disability trajectories classes in 2002

From: Interpretable classifiers for prediction of disability trajectories using a nationwide longitudinal database

 

Total sample (N = 4149)

Trajectory Class

P-valuea

Missing data

Normal (n = 3210)

Progressive (n = 642)

High-onset (n = 297)

Sociodemographic Characteristics

 Age

77.61 ± 9.31

75.23 ± 7.97

85.42 ± 8.72

89.12 ± 9.30

 < 0.001

Sex

 Male

1927 (46.4%)

1619 (50.4%)

248 (38.6%)

60 (20.2%)

 < 0.001

 Female

2222 (53.6%)

1591 (49.6%)

394 (61.4%)

237 (79.8%)

Ethnicity

 Han Ancestry

3852 (92.8%)

2970 (92.5%)

602 (93.8%)

280(94.3%)

0.326

 Minority

297 (7.2%)

240 (7.5%)

40 (6.2%)

17 (5.7%)

Education

 Illiterate

2280 (55.1%)

1635 (51.0%)

412 (64.5%)

233 (79.3%)

 < 0.001

10 (0.24%)

 Literate

1859 (44.9%)

1571 (49.0%)

227 (35.5%)

61 (20.7%)

Occupation

 Low level

497 (12.0%)

416 (13%)

63 (9.9%)

18 (6.1%)

0.003

12 (0.29%)

 High level

3640 (88.0%)

2788 (87.0%)

574 (90.1%)

278 (93.9%)

Marital Status

 Unmarried/Separated/Divorced/Widowed

2160 (52.1%)

1475 (46.0%)

451 (70.2%)

234 (78.8%)

 < 0.001

 Married

1989 (47.9%)

1735 (54.0%)

191 (29.8%)

63 (21.2%)

Residence

 Urban

1692 (40.8%)

1242 (38.7%)

309 (48.1%)

141 (47.5%)

 < 0.001

 Rural

2457 (59.2%)

1968 (61.3%)

333 (51.9%)

156 (52.5%)

Co-residence

 Living alone

664 (16.0%)

496 (15.5%)

135 (21.0%)

33 (11.1%)

 < 0.001

 With family

3485 (84.0%)

2714 (84.5%)

507 (79.0%)

264 (88.9%)

Lifestyles

 Fruit Intake

 Low frequency

2758 (66.5%)

2124 (66.2%)

433 (67.4%)

201 (67.7%)

0.741

 High frequency

1391 (33.5%)

1086 (33.8%)

209 (32.6%)

96 (32.3%)

Vegetables Intake

 Low frequency

416 (10.0%)

285 (8.9%)

77 (12.0%)

54 (18.2%)

 < 0.001

1 (0.02%)

 High frequency

3732 (90.0%)

2924 (91.1%)

565 (88.0%)

243 (81.8%)

Tea Consumption

 Low frequency

2797 (67.4%)

2097 (65.3%)

459 (71.5%)

241 (81.1%)

 < 0.001

1 (0.02%)

 High frequency

1351 (32.6%)

1112 (34.7%)

183 (28.5%)

56 (18.9%)

Smoker

 Yes

979 (23.6%)

838 (26.1%)

117 (18.2%)

24 (8.1%)

 < 0.001

1 (0.02%)

 No

3169 (76.4%)

2371 (73.9%)

525 (81.8%)

273 (91.9%)

Alcohol Drinker

 Yes

988 (23.8%)

822 (25.6%)

136 (21.2%)

30 (10.1%)

 < 0.001

4 (0.10%)

 No

3157 (76.2%)

2386 (74.4%)

505 (78.8%)

266 (89.9%)

Regular Exercise

 Yes

1573 (37.9%)

1261(39.3%)

269 (42.0%)

43 (14.5%)

 < 0.001

3 (0.07%)

 No

2573 (62.1%)

1948 (60.7%)

372 (58.0%)

253 (85.5%)

 Leisure Activity Index

0.49 ± 0.13

0.51 ± 0.12

0.45 ± 0.13

0.31 ± 0.10

 < 0.001

2 (0.05%)

Objective Examination

 Weight

51.25 ± 10.25

52.00 ± 10.02

49.65 ± 10.53

46.58 ± 10.43

 < 0.001

 Systolic Pressure

133.03 ± 17.63

132.35 ± 17.23

134.65 ± 18.15

136.80 ± 20.00

0.28

4 (0.10%)

 Diastolic Pressure

84.65 ± 12.22

84.34 ± 12.06

85.79 ± 12.76

85.58 ± 12.57

0.04

6 (0.14%)

Rhythm of Heart

 Regular

3872 (93.4%)

3025 (94.3%)

588 (91.6%)

259 (87.5%)

 < 0.001

4 (0.10%)

 Irregular

273 (6.6%)

182 (5.7%)

54 (8.4%)

37 (12.5%)

 Heart Rate

72.44 ± 7.53

72.37 ± 7.46

72.73 ± 7.61

72.51 ± 8.10

0.01

6 (0.14%)

 Length from Wrist to Shoulder

49.84 ± 5.53

50.20 ± 5.43

49.62 ± 5.90

48.33 ± 5.55

0.10

2 (0.05%)

 Length from Kneel to Floor

46.66 ± 5.37

46.79 ± 5.27

46.49 ± 5.81

45.59 ± 5.28

0.14

6 (0.14%)

Mental & Cognitive &Physical State

 PWB Score

22.51 ± 3.74

22.64 ± 3.71

22.42 ± 3.57

20.97 ± 4.21

0.189

226 (5.45%)

 BADL Score

11.77 ± 0.99

11.96 ± 0.26

11.81 ± 0.52

9.60 ± 2.70

 < 0.001

 IADL Score

13.80 ± 3.82

15.05 ± 1.85

12.60 ± 3.01

2.79 ± 2.44

 < 0.001

 MMSE score

27.95 ± 2.74

28.20 ± 2.40

27.08 ± 3.35

24.17 ± 5.12

 < 0.001

1680 (40.49%)

 Chronic Condition

0.68 ± 0.91

0.65 ± 0.85

0.77 ± 1.03

0.90 ± 1.09

 < 0.001

364 (8.77%)

Hypertension

 Yes

677 (16.9%)

486 (15.7%)

126 (20.3%)

65 (22.3%)

0.001

145 (3.49%)

 No

3327 (83.1%)

2606 (84.3%)

495 (79.7%)

226(77.7%)

Diabetes

 Yes

77 (1.9%)

54 (1.7%)

19 (3.1%)

4 (1.4%)

0.07

146 (3.52%)

 No

3926 (98.1%)

3044 (98.3%)

601 (96.9%)

281 (98.6%)

Stroke

 Yes

178 (4.4%)

110 (3.5%)

36 (5.8%)

32 (11.1%)

 < 0.001

125 (3.01%)

 No

3846 (95.6%)

3005 (96.5%)

585 (94.2%)

256 (88.9%)

Hear Disease

 Yes

363 (9.1%)

260 (8.4%)

71 (11.5%)

32 (11.1%)

0.02

141 (3.40%)

 No

3645 (90.9%)

2841 (91.6%)

548 (88.5%)

256 (88.9%)

Family Socioeconomic factors

 Household Income per Capita

  Low level

3029 (75.8%)

2337 (75.2%)

476 (77.7%)

216 (78.3%)

0.27

153 (3.69%)

  High level

967 (24.2%)

770 (24.8%)

137 (22.3%)

60 (21.7%)

 Adequate Health Services

  Yes

3792 (91.4%)

2974 (92.7%)

586 (91.3%)

232 (78.1%)

 < 0.001

1 (0.02%)

  No

356 (8.6%)

235 (7.3%)

56 (8.7%)

65 (21.9%)

 Sufficient Financial Support

  Yes

3312 (79.9%)

2581 (80.4%)

508 (79.3%)

223 (75.1%)

0.08

2 (0.05%)

  No

835 (20.1%)

628 (19.6%)

133 (20.7%)

74 (24.9%)

  1. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation, number (%)
  2. Abbreviations: PWB, psychological well-being; BADL, basic activity of daily living; IADL, instrumental activity of daily living; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination
  3. aANOVA test and chi-square test were performed, and the null hypothesis is no difference across the three classes