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Table 2 Sample characteristics by disability trajectories classes in 2002

From: Interpretable classifiers for prediction of disability trajectories using a nationwide longitudinal database

  Total sample (N = 4149) Trajectory Class P-valuea Missing data
Normal (n = 3210) Progressive (n = 642) High-onset (n = 297)
Sociodemographic Characteristics
 Age 74.99 ± 7.58 75.23 ± 7.97 85.42 ± 8.72 89.12 ± 9.30  < 0.001
Sex
 Male 1972 (46.4%) 1619 (50.4%) 248 (38.6%) 60 (20.2%)  < 0.001
 Female 2222 (53.6%) 1591 (49.6%) 394 (61.4%) 237 (79.8%)
Ethnicity
 Han Ancestry 3852 (92.8%) 2970 (92.5%) 602 (93.8%) 280(94.3%) 0.326
 Minority 297 (7.2%) 240 (7.5%) 40 (6.2%) 17 (5.7%)
Education
 Illiterate 2280 (55.1%) 1635 (51.0%) 412 (64.5%) 233 (79.3%)  < 0.001 10 (0.24%)
 Literate 1859 (44.9%) 1571 (49.0%) 227 (35.3%) 61 (20.7%)
Occupation
 Low level 497 (12.0%) 416 (13%) 63 (9.9%) 18 (6.1%) 0.003 12 (0.29%)
 High level 3640 (88.0%) 2788 (87.0%) 574 (90.1%) 278 (93.9%)
Marital Status
 Unmarried/Separated/Divorced/Widowed 2160 (52.1%) 1475 (46.0%) 451 (70.2%) 234 (78.8%)  < 0.001
 Married 1989 (47.9%) 1735 (54.0%) 191 (29.8%) 63 (21.2%)
Residence
 Urban 1692 (40.8%) 1242 (38.7%) 309 (48.1%) 141 (47.5%)  < 0.001
 Rural 2457 (59.2%) 1968 (61.3%) 333 (51.9%) 156 (52.5%)
Co-residence
 Living alone 664 (16.0%) 496 (15.5%) 135 (21.0%) 33 (11.1%)  < 0.001
 With family 3485 (84.0%) 2714 (84.5%) 507 (79.0%) 264 (88.9%)
Lifestyles
 Fruit Intake
 Low frequency 2758 (66.5%) 2124 (66.2%) 433 (67.4%) 201 (67.7%) 0.741
 High frequency 1391 (33.5%) 1086 (33.8%) 209 (32.6%) 96 (32.3%)
Vegetables Intake
 Low frequency 416 (10.0%) 285 (8.9%) 77 (12.0%) 54 (18.2%)  < 0.001 1 (0.02%)
 High frequency 3732 (90.0%) 2924 (91.1%) 565 (88.0%) 243 (81.8%)
Tea Consumption
 Low frequency 2797 (67.4%) 2097 (65.3%) 459 (71.5%) 241 (81.1%)  < 0.001 1 (0.02%)
 High frequency 1351 (32.6%) 1112 (34.7%) 183 (28.5%) 56 (18.9%)
Smoker
 Yes 979 (23.6%) 838 (26.1%) 117 (18.2%) 24 (8.1%)  < 0.001 1 (0.02%)
 No 3169 (76.4%) 2371 (73.9%) 525 (81.8%) 273 (91.9%)
Alcohol Drinker
 Yes 988 (23.8%) 822 (25.6%) 136 (21.2%) 30 (10.1%)  < 0.001 4 (0.10%)
 No 3157 (76.2%) 2386 (74.4%) 505 (78.8%) 266 (89.9%)
Regular Exercise
 Yes 1573 (37.9%) 1261(39.3%) 269 (42.0%) 43 (14.5%)  < 0.001 3 (0.07%)
 No 2573 (62.1%) 1948 (60.7%) 372 (58.0%) 253 (85.5%)
 Leisure Activity Index 0.49 ± 0.13 0.51 ± 0.12 0.45 ± 0.13 0.31 ± 0.10  < 0.001 2 (0.05%)
Objective Examination
 Weight 51.25 ± 10.25 52.00 ± 10.02 49.65 ± 10.53 46.58 ± 10.43  < 0.001
 Systolic Pressure 133.03 ± 17.63 132.35 ± 17.23 134.65 ± 18.15 136.80 ± 20.00 0.28 4 (0.10%)
 Diastolic Pressure 84.65 ± 12.22 84.34 ± 12.06 85.79 ± 12.76 85.58 ± 12.57 0.04 6 (0.14%)
Rhythm of Heart
 Regular 3872 (93.4%) 3025 (94.3%) 588 (91.6%) 259 (87.5%)  < 0.001 4 (0.10%)
 Irregular 273 (6.6%) 182 (5.7%) 54 (8.4%) 37 (12.5%)
 Heart Rate 72.44 ± 7.53 72.37 ± 7.46 72.73 ± 7.61 72.51 ± 8.10 0.01 6 (0.14%)
 Length from Wrist to Shoulder 49.84 ± 5.53 50.20 ± 5.43 49.62 ± 5.90 48.33 ± 5.55 0.10 2 (0.05%)
 Length from Kneel to Floor 46.66 ± 5.37 46.79 ± 5.27 46.49 ± 5.81 45.59 ± 5.28 0.14 6 (0.14%)
Mental & Cognitive &Physical State
 PWB Score 22.51 ± 3.74 22.64 ± 3.71 22.42 ± 3.57 20.97 ± 4.21 0.189 226 (5.45%)
 BADL Score 11.77 ± 0.99 11.96 ± 0.26 11.81 ± 0.52 9.60 ± 2.70  < 0.001
 IADL Score 13.80 ± 3.82 15.05 ± 1.85 12.60 ± 3.01 2.79 ± 2.44  < 0.001
 MMSE score 27.95 ± 2.74 28.20 ± 2.40 27.08 ± 3.35 24.17 ± 5.12  < 0.001 1680 (40.49%)
 Chronic Condition 0.68 ± 0.91 0.65 ± 0.85 0.77 ± 1.03 0.90 ± 1.09  < 0.001 364 (8.77%)
Hypertension
 Yes 677 (16.9%) 486 (15.7%) 126 (20.3%) 65 (22.3%) 0.001 145 (3.49%)
 No 3327 (83.1%) 2606 (84.3%) 495 (79.7%) 226(77.7%)
Diabetes
 Yes 77 (1.9%) 54 (1.7%) 19 (3.1%) 4 (1.4%) 0.07 146 (3.52%)
 No 3926 (98.1%) 3044 (98.3%) 601 (96.9%) 281 (98.6%)
Stroke
 Yes 178 (4.4%) 110 (3.5%) 36 (5.8%) 32 (11.1%)  < 0.001 125 (3.01%)
 No 3946 (95.6%) 3005 (96.5%) 585 (94.2%) 256 (88.9%)
Hear Disease
 Yes 363 (9.1%) 260 (8.4%) 71 (11.5%) 32 (11.1%) 0.02 141 (3.40%)
 No 3645 (90.9%) 2841 (91.6%) 548 (88.5%) 256 (88.9%)
Family Socioeconomic factors
 Household Income per Capita
  Low level 3029 (75.8%) 2337 (75.2%) 476 (77.7%) 216 (78.3%) 0.27 153 (3.69%)
  High level 967 (24.2%) 770 (24.8%) 137 (22.3%) 60 (3.4%)
 Adequate Health Services
  Yes 3792 (91.4%) 2974 (92.7%) 586 (91.3%) 232 (78.1%)  < 0.001 1 (0.02%)
  No 356 (8.6%) 235 (7.3%) 56 (8.7%) 65 (21.9%)
 Sufficient Financial Support
  Yes 3312 (79.9%) 2581 (80.4%) 508 (79.3%) 223 (75.1%) 0.08 2 (0.05%)
  No 835 (20.1%) 628 (19.6%) 133 (20.7%) 74 (24.9%)
  1. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation, number (%)
  2. Abbreviations: PWB, psychological well-being; BADL, basic activity of daily living; IADL, instrumental activity of daily living; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination
  3. aANOVA test and chi-square test were performed, and the null hypothesis is no difference across the three classes