Skip to main content

Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios for preserved HGS across the physical activity guideline adherence categories

From: The association of aerobic, resistance, and combined exercises with the handgrip strength of middle-aged and elderly Korean adults: a nationwide cross-sectional study

Characteristics Model 1 (unadjusted) Model 2 (adjusted)
  a Unadjusted prevalence ratio (95% CI) p value b Adjusted prevalence ratio (95% CI) p value
Male
 Age 40 − 49 years
 Neither 1   1  
  Aerobic only 1.011 (0.968 − 1.054) 0.632 1.014 (0.969 − 1.060) 0.555
  Resistance only 1.031 (0.967 − 1.100) 0.355 1.011 (0.937 − 1.090) 0.784
  Combined 1.040 (0.991 − 1.090) 0.111 1.021 (0.967 − 1.078) 0.446
 Age 50 − 59 years
  Neither 1   1  
  Aerobic only 1.025 (0.972 − 1.081) 0.356 1.002 (0.943 − 1.065) 0.945
  Resistance only 1.055 (0.990 − 1.124) 0.098 1.044 (0.973 − 1.120) 0.231
  Combined 1.084 (1.027 − 1.143) 0.003 1.072 (1.006 − 1.142) 0.031
 Age 60 − 69 years
  Neither 1   1  
  Aerobic only 1.001 (0.910 − 1.101) 0.984 1.015 (0.917 − 1.124) 0.771
  Resistance only 1.074 (0.961 − 1.201) 0.208 1.061 (0.941 − 1.197) 0.335
  Combined 1.200 (1.100 − 1.310)  < 0.001 1.180 (1.070 − 1.300) 0.001
 Age 70 years and above
  Neither 1   1  
  Aerobic only 1.357 (1.098 − 1.678) 0.005 1.240 (0.991 − 1.551) 0.060
  Resistance only 1.716 (1.385 − 2.126)  < 0.001 1.459 (1.158 − 1.839) 0.001
  Combined 1.965 (1.597 − 2.417)  < 0.001 1.664 (1.323 − 2.092)  < 0.001
Female
 Age 40 − 49 years
  Neither 1   1  
  Aerobic only 1.013 (0.976 − 1.052) 0.499 1.000 (0.961 − 1.040) 0.981
  Resistance only 0.991 (0.913 − 1.074) 0.817 0.996 (0.919 − 1.080) 0.924
  Combined 1.033 (0.980 − 1.089) 0.222 1.022 (0.967 − 1.080) 0.433
 Age 50 − 59 years
  Neither 1   1  
  Aerobic only 1.045 (1.000 − 1.092) 0.052 1.026 (0.973 − 1.081) 0.350
  Resistance only 1.128 (1.063 − 1.198)  < 0.001 1.116 (1.036 − 1.203) 0.004
  Combined 1.107 (1.048 − 1.171)  < 0.001 1.112 (1.045 − 1.184) 0.001
 Age 60 − 69 years
  Neither 1   1  
  Aerobic only 1.095 (1.027 − 1.168) 0.005 1.073 (0.994 − 1.159) 0.072
  Resistance only 1.091 (0.978 − 1.218) 0.120 1.115 (0.989 − 1.256) 0.076
  Combined 1.205 (1.107 − 1.313)  < 0.001 1.188 (1.079 − 1.307)  < 0.001
 Age 70 years and above
  Neither 1   1  
  Aerobic only 1.291 (1.118 − 1.491) 0.001 1.137 (0.938 − 1.377) 0.190
  Resistance only 1.571 (1.265 − 1.952)  < 0.001 1.191 (0.884 − 1.603) 0.251
  Combined 1.896 (1.471 − 2.443)  < 0.001 1.408 (0.953 − 2.079) 0.086
  1. Physical activity guideline adherence categories are composed of four groups: “neither” (Moderate to vigorous physical activity, MVPA 0–149 min/week and resistance exercise 0–1 sessions/week); “aerobic only” (MVPA ≥ 150 min/week and resistance exercise 0–1 sessions/week); “resistance only” (resistance exercise ≥ 2 sessions/week and MVPA 0–149 min/week); and “combined” (MVPA ≥ 150 min/week and resistance exercise ≥ 2 sessions/week)
  2. aPrevalence ratios were calculated using Poisson regression with a robust error variance
  3. bPrevalence ratio adjusted for smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, protein intake, fat intake, carbohydrate intake, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus
  4. HGS Handgrip strength, CI Confidence interval