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Table 1 Baseline clinical and demographic characteristics by frailty status

From: Association of frailty and functional recovery in an Acute Care for Elders unit: a prospective observational study

Variable Robust Prefrail Frail P-value
  n = 28 n = 57 n = 29
Demographic data
 Age, years 78.4 (8.4) 78.8 (8.1) 83.0 (6.9) 0.04
 Female, n (%) 18 (64.3) 39 (68.4) 20 (69.0) 0.91
 BMI (kg/m2) 25.3 (3.7) 25.1 (4.9) 24.4 (3.3) 0.68
Clinical data
 ADL before admission 98.8 (3.5) 84.3 (23.2) 69.7 (29.5)  < 0.001
 Lawton IADL 6.5 (1.7) 4.7 (3.1) 2.2 (2.7)  < 0.001
 MMSE 21.3 (5.6) 18.9 (5.7) 16.6 (6.3) 0.01
 GDS-5 0.4 (0.7) 0.8 (1.3) 1.6 (1.5) 0.002
 PIM 0.4 (1.2) 0.4 (0.8) 0.5 (0.9) 0.91
 CCI 5.4 (2.3) 5.4 (1.6) 6.1 (1.5) 0.17
 Length of stay, days 7.3 (10.3) 5.9 (2.9) 6.6 (2.5) 0.55
  1. Note. Data are presented as n (%) or mean (standard deviation). BMI Body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), ADL Activities of daily living (measured by the Barthel Index; range, 0–100), Lawnton IADL Lawton instrumental activities of daily living (range, 0–8), MMSE Mini-mental state examination (range, 0–30), GDS-5 Five-item geriatric depression scale (range, 0–5), PIM Potentially inappropriate medication, CCI Charlson comorbidity index (range, 0–37)