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Table 2 Factors associated with polypharmacy and self-medication

From: Uses and perceptions of medications among French older adults: results from the 2020 French Health Barometer survey

  Polypharmacy Self-medication
Characteristics   Model 1 Model 2   Model 1 Model 2
   (n = 1,424) (n = 1,424)   (n = 1,428) (n = 1,428)
  Crude PR Adjusted PR Adjusted PR Crude PR Adjusted PR Adjusted PR
  (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI)
Sociodemographic variables
 Sex
  Male Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Female 0.91 0.79 0.67 *** 1.15 ** 1.24 *** 1.24 ***
  (0.72 – 1.14) (0.59 – 1.05) (0.51 – 0.88) (1.01 – 1.30) (1.08 – 1.43) (1.08 – 1.43)
 Age group (years)
  70 – 74 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  75 – 79 1.46 *** 1.23 1.04 0.96 0.97 0.99
  (1.11 – 1.92) (0.92 – 1.65) (0.77 – 1.39) (0.84 – 1.10) (0.84 – 1.12) (0.86 – 1.14)
  80 – 85 1.61 *** 1.39 ** 1.17 0.77 *** 0.85 * 0.87
  (1.22 – 2.13) (1.02 – 1.87) (0.90 – 1.52) (0.65 – 0.92) (0.70 – 1.02) (0.73 – 1.05)
Living situation
  Not living alone Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Living alone 1.31 ** 1.13 0.94 0.96 1.02 1.07
  (1.05 – 1.64) (0.86 – 1.48) (0.72 – 1.21) (0.85 – 1.09) (0.87 – 1.18) (0.92 – 1.23)
Socio-professional category
  Intermediate/Executive/Intellectual Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Employees 1.24 0.90 0.87 0.94 1.12 1.12
  (0.93 – 1.65) (0.64 – 1.28) (0.62 – 1.21) (0.82 – 1.09) (0.94 – 1.33) (0.95 – 1.32)
  Laborers/Farmers/Craftsmen/Traders 1.32 ** 0.93 0.93 0.78 *** 1.00 0.98
  (1.01 – 1.74) (0.68 – 1.28) (0.70 – 1.22) (0.67 – 0.91) (0.83 – 1.20) (0.82 – 1.18)
Education level
  None/Primary Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Secondary 0.60 *** 0.69 *** 0.74 ** 1.36 *** 1.35 *** 1.32 ***
  (0.47 – 0.77) (0.53 – 0.91) (0.57 – 0.95) (1.15 – 1.60) (1.13 – 1.62) (1.11 – 1.58)
  Post-secondary 0.44 *** 0.51 *** 0.55 *** 1.63 *** 1.60 *** 1.53 ***
  (0.32 – 0.60) (0.35 – 0.75) (0.38 – 0.79) (1.39 – 1.92) (1.29 – 1.97) (1.25 – 1.88)
Income (euros)
   < 1500 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  1500 – 3000 0.73 ** 0.88 0.89 1.09 1.03 1.01
  (0.56 – 0.94) (0.65 – 1.17) (0.67 – 1.17) (0.92 – 1.30) (0.86 – 1.24) (0.85 – 1.21)
   > 3000 0.53 *** 0.75 0.78 1.40 *** 1.22 * 1.22 *
  (0.37 – 0.75) (0.49 – 1.14) (0.51 – 1.20) (1.18 – 1.66) (0.97 – 1.55) (0.97 – 1.54)
Health-related variables
Self-perceived health
  Very good/Good Ref - Ref Ref - Ref
  Very bad/Bad/Fair 3.18 ***   1.53 *** 0.92   1.00
  (2.43 – 4.17)   (1.13 – 2.08) (0.81 – 1.05)   (0.87 – 1.15)
Chronic conditions
  No Ref - Ref Ref - Ref
  Yes 3.57 ***   2.24 *** 0.95   0.92
  (2.57 – 4.95)   (1.62 – 3.12) (0.84 – 1.08)   (0.80 – 1.05)
Activity limitation
  Not limited Ref - Ref Ref - Ref
  Limited but not severely 2.51 ***   1.70 *** 1.21 ***   1.30 ***
  (1.88 – 3.35)   (1.22 – 2.37) (1.06 – 1.37)   (1.13 – 1.50)
  Severely limited 4.46 ***   2.06 *** 0.70 ***   0.91
  (3.42 – 5.82)   (1.47 – 2.89) (0.56 – 0.87)   (0.71 – 1.17)
Frailty status
  Not frail Ref - Ref Ref - Ref
  Pre-frail 1.73 ***   1.03 1.03   1.02
  (1.26 – 2.37)   (0.74 – 1.42) (0.91 – 1.16)   (0.90 – 1.17)
  Frail 4.65 ***   1.74 *** 0.62 ***   0.68 **
  (3.45 – 6.28)   (1.21 – 2.51) (0.48 – 0.80)   (0.50 – 0.92)
  1. PR  Prevalence Ratio
  2. * p < 0.1; ** p < 0.05; *** p < 0.01
  3. Model 1: adjusted for socio-demographic variables
  4. Model 2: adjusted for socio-demographic and health-related variables