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Table 1 Characteristics of the participants based on different frailty (n = 231)

From: Evaluation of the correlation between frailty and sleep quality among elderly patients with osteoporosis: a cross-sectional study

Variables n(%) Nonfrail
n(%)
Prefrail
n(%)
Frail
n(%)
X2 P
Gender      23.379 0.000
 Male 87 (37.7) 6 (6.9) 39 (44.8) 42 (48.3)   
 Female 144 (62.3) 11 (7.6) 23 (16.0) 110 (76.4)   
Age, y      25.805 0.000
 60–74 152 (65.8) 17 (11.2) 51 (33.6) 84 (55.3)   
 75–89 70 (30.3) 0 (0.0) 8 (11.4) 62 (88.6)   
  ≥ 90 9 (3.9) 0 (0.0) 3 (33.3) 6 (66.7)   
BMI(kg/m2)      15.412 0.004
 Low weight 24 (10.4) 0 (0.0) 1 (4.2) 23 (95.8)   
 Normal weight 127 (55.0) 10 (7.9) 31 (24.4) 86 (67.7)   
 Overweight/obesity 80 (34.6) 7 (8.7) 30 (37.5) 43 (53.8)   
Marital status      2.384 0.304
 Married 184 (79.7) 16 (8.7) 49 (26.6) 119 (64.7)   
 Unmarried or widowed 47 (20.4) 1 (2.1) 13 (27.7) 33 (70.2)   
Education      22.151 0.001
 Primary school and below 77 (33.3) 7 (9.1) 20 (26.0) 50 (64.9)   
 Junior school 58 (25.1) 3 (5.2) 8 (13.8) 47 (81.0)   
 High school 49 (21.2) 0 (0.0) 14 (28.6) 35 (71.4)   
 College and above 47 (20.4) 7 (14.9) 20 (42.6) 20 (42.6)   
Residence      17.074 0.002
 Alone/nursing home 15 (6.5) 1 (6.7) 6 (40.0) 8 (53.3)   
 Cohabitant spouse 91 (39.4) 12 (13.2) 31 (34.1) 48 (52.7)   
 Cohabitate with children 125 (54.1) 4 (3.2) 25 (20.0) 96 (76.8)   
Past occupation      0.086 0.958
 Manual labor 138 (59.7) 10 (7.2) 38 (27.5) 90 (65.3)   
 Mental labor 93 (40.3) 7 (7.5) 24 (25.8) 62(66.7)   
Income      5.197 0.268
 Pension/Social security 148 (64.1) 13 (8.8) 38 (25.7) 97 (65.5)   
 Child support 71 (30.7) 3 (4.2) 18 (25.4) 50 (70.4)   
 Other 12 (5.2) 1 (8.3) 6 (50.0) 5 (41.7)   
Smoking history      4.146 0.126
 No 191 (82.7) 11 (5.8) 52 (27.2) 128 (67.0)   
 Yes 40 (17.3) 6 (15.0) 10 (25.0) 24 (60.0)   
Drinking history      10.140 0.006
 No 191 (82.7) 11 (5.8) 46 (24.1) 134 (70.2)   
 Yes 40 (17.3) 6 (15.0) 16 (40.0) 18 (45.0)   
History of fracture      9.946 0.007
 No 154 (66.7) 15 (9.7) 48 (31.2) 91 (59.1)   
 Yes 77 (33.3) 2 (2.6) 14 (18.2) 61 (79.2)   
Pain      24.071 0.000
 No 21 (9.1) 5 (23.8) 12 (57.1) 4 (19.0)   
 Yes 210 (90.9) 12 (5.7) 50 (23.8) 148 (70.5)   
Comorbidity      3.814 0.149
 No 88 (38.1) 6 (6.8) 30 (34.1) 52 (59.1)   
 Yes 143 (61.9) 11 (7.7) 32 (22.4) 100 (69.9)   
Polypharmacy      18.023 0.000
 No 183 (79.2) 16 (8.7) 59 (32.2) 108(59.0)   
 Yes 48 (20.8) 1 (2.1) 3 (6.2) 44 (91.7)   
Participate in social activity      9.787 0.134
 No 100 (43.3) 4 (4.0) 21 (21.0) 75 (75.0)   
 1 to 2 times/year 108 (46.8) 11 (10.2) 31 (28.7) 66 (61.1)   
 1 to 2 times/month 16 (6.9) 1 (6.2) 7 (43.8) 8 (50.0)   
 1 to 2 times/week 7 (3.0) 1 (14.3) 3 (42.9) 3 (42.9)   
ADLs      99.243 0.000
 No impairment 83 (35.9) 16 (19.3) 46 (55.4) 21 (25.3)   
 Mild impairment 117 (50.7) 1 (0.9) 16 (13.7) 100 (85.5)   
 Moderate impairment 20 (8.7) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 20 (100.0)   
 Severe impairment 11 (4.8) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 11 (100.0)   
Sleep quality      32.510 0.000
 Nomal sleep quality A 48 (20.8) 8 (16.7) 25 (52.1) 15 (31.2)   
 Poor sleep quality B 183 (79.2) 9 (4.9) 37 (20.2) 137 (74.9)   
  1. A: Normal sleep quality indicates PSQI ≤ 7; B: poor sleep quality indicates PSQI > 7