Skip to main content

Table 4 Multivariable model: Difference between men and women in exposure to determinants of physical functioning

From: Exploring the difference between men and women in physical functioning: How do sociodemographic, lifestyle- and health-related determinants contribute?

Variable Beta sex (women)a 95% CI   % Change Beta sexb
Full model (includes all variables) -3.28 (-4.13 -2.43) Reference
Socio-demographic determinants
 - Education (low/medium vs high) -3.67 (-4.52 -2.82) - 11.9%
 - Work status (no vs yes) -3.72 (-4.57 -2.87) - 13.5%
 - Living situation (alone vs together) -3.30 (-4.15 -2.46) - 0.6%
Lifestyle-related determinants
 - Alcohol consumption (> 1 glass/day vs ≤ 1 glass/day) -3.45 (-4.28 -2.62) - 5.2%
 - Current smoking status (yes vs no) -3.28 (-4.14 -2.43) - 0.1%
 - Physical activity (h/week) -2.97 (-3.80 -2.14)  + 9.5%
 - Sleep hours (long/short vs normal) -3.26 (-4.11 -2.40)  + 0.8%
 - BMI (kg/m2) -2.81 (-3.68 -1.94)  + 14.2%
Health-related determinants
 - Chronic diseases (one/two/more vs none) -3.26 (-4.14 -2.39)  + 0.5%
 - Pain (mild/medium to severe vs none) -5.41 (-6.41 -4.42) - 65.0% c
 - Mental health (poor vs good) -3.41 (-4.26 -2.55) - 3.9%
  1. Abbreviations: 95%CI = 95% Confidence Interval, BMI = Body Mass Index
  2. Note: Each row represents the full model including all variables, age, age2 and sex excluding the indicated variable (-)
  3. Note: Bold is significant (percentage change > 5%)
  4. aRepresents the sex difference (women versus men) in physical functioning
  5. bPercentage change = 1—(Beta “sex” full model minus indicated variable / Beta “sex” full model), interpretation: A negative percentage change means this factor (partly) explains the lower physical functioning score among women compared to men (i.e. the sex difference decreases when adjusted for this determinant) and a positive percentage change suggest that this factor supresses the lower physical functioning score among women compared to men because after the adjustment the sex difference increases
  6. cTo illustrate: A larger sex difference (-5.41) was observed in the multivariable model including the risk factor pain compared to the model without pain (-3.28). So, adjusting for pain decreased the lower physical functioning score among women compared to men by (2.13/3.28) 65.0%