Skip to main content

Table 2 Differences in demographic, and clinical findings on admission in patients ≥ 80 years hospitalized with COVID-19 during the first and successive waves

From: Differences in clinical features and mortality in very old unvaccinated patients (≥ 80 years) hospitalized with COVID-19 during the first and successive waves from the multicenter SEMI-COVID-19 Registry (Spain)

  Total
N (%)
( n  = 5953)
First wave
N (%)
( n  = 4545)
Successive waves
N (%)
( n  = 1408)
p value
Age, years, median (IQR), 85.6 (82.3–89.2) 85.5 (82.2–89.0) 86.1 (82.6–89.7)  < 0.001
Age, years, median (IQR),     0.003
 80–84 years 2271 (38.1) 1772 (39.0) 499 (35.4)  
 85–89 years 2106 (35.4) 1622 (35.7) 484 (34.4)  
 90–94 years 1185 (19.9) 864 (19.0) 321 (22.8)  
  ≥ 95 years 391 (6.6) 287 (6.3) 104 (7.4)  
Sex, Male 3024 (50.8) 2331 (51.3) 693 (49.2) 0.175
Acquisition
 Community 4172 (70.2) 3170 (69.9) 1002 (70.2) 0.341
 Nosocomial 426 (7.2) 330 (7.3) 96 (7.3) 0.492
 Nursing Home 1036 (22.8) 1036 (22.8) 309 (22.0) 0.566
Degree of dependence      < 0.001
 Independent or mild 3178 (56.2) 2516 (56.4) 662 (47.2)  
 Moderate 1486 (54.3) 1076 (24.1) 410 (29.2)  
 Severe 1201 (20.5) 871 (19.5) 330 (23.5)  
Comorbidities
 Baseline CCI, median (IQR) 6 (5–7) 6 (5–7) 6 (5–7) 0.007
 Baseline CCI ≥ 6, n (%) 2445 (42.1) 1892 (42.9) 553 (39.8) 0.006
 Hypertension 4516 (76.0) 3412 (75.2) 1104 (78.4) 0.014
 Non-atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseasesa 1918 (32.3) 1464 (32.3) 454 (32.3) 0.993
 Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseasesb 1750 (29.6) 1320 (29.2) 431 (30.7) 0.306
 Dementia 1671 (28.1) 1269 (28.0) 402 (28.8) 0.678
 Diabetes mellitus 1645 (27.7) 1204 (26.6) 441 (31.3)  < 0.001
 Chronic pulmonary diseasec 1144 (19.3) 850 (18.8) 294(20.9) 0.079
 Obesityf 893 (16.8) 675 (16.7) 218 (17.3) 0.584
 Malignancyd 806 (13.6) 615 (13.6) 191 (13.6) 0.993
 Moderate-to-severe kidney diseasee 692 (11.7) 521 (11.5) 171 (12.1) 0.476
Symptoms
 Duration of symptoms in days, median (IQR) 5 (2–7) 5 (2–7) 4 (2–7) 0.029
 Fever 4158 (70.2) 3338 (73.9) 820 (58.3)  < 0.001
 Dyspnea 3621 (61.1) 2757 (61.0) 864 (61.4) 0.791
 Cough 3537 (59.6) 2791 (61.7) 746 (53.1)  < 0.001
 Asthenia 2326 (39.6) 1696 (38.0) 630 (44.7)  < 0.001
 Confusion 1644 (27.8) 1265 (28.1) 379 (27.0) 0.428
 Anorexia 1317 (22.5) 963 (21.6) 354 (25.1) 0.006
 Diarrhea 975 (16.5) 732 (16.3) 243 (17.3) 0.396
 Arthralgia-myalgias 983 (16.7) 774 (17.3) 209 (14.9) 0.032
 Vomiting 379 (6.4) 287 (6.4) 92 (6.5) 0.855
 Abdominal pain 320 (5.4) 255 (5.7) 65 (4.6) 0.118
 Odynophagia 330 (5.6) 272 (6.1) 58 (4.1) 0.005
 Headache 310 (5.3) 238 (5.3) 72 (5.1) 0.747
 Ageusia 183 (3.1) 145 (3.3) 38 (2.7) 0.275
 Anosmia 158 (2.7) 127 (2.9) 31 (2.2) 0.173
Physical examination
 Oxygen saturation ≤ 94% 3236 (51.4) 2334 (52.7) 902 (48.3) 0.001
 Temperature ≥ 37.8 ºC 1025 (16.7) 830 (19.4) 195 (10.6)  < 0.001
 Hypotension 467 (7.5) 334 (7.6) 138 (7.1) 0.471
 Tachycardia 1203 (19.2) 881 (20.0) 322 (17.2) 0.009
 Tachypnea 2314 (39.6) 1810 (40.8) 504 (36.0) 0.001
 Pulmonary rhonchi 1087 (17.6) 847 (19.1) 240 (17.7) 0.218
 qSOFA index ≥ 2 1076 (16.7) 798 (17.6) 278 (14.6) 0.004
  1. CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, IQR Interquartile range, N (%) Number of cases (percentage), qSOFA Quick sequential organ failure assessment
  2. aNon-atherosclerotic heart disease includes atrial fibrillation and/or heart failure. bAtherosclerotic cardiovascular disease includes coronary, cerebrovascular, and/or peripheral vascular disease. cChronic pulmonary disease includes chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and/or asthma. dMalignancy includes solid tumors or hematological neoplasia. eKidney disease is defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 according to the CKD-EPI equation. fObesity is defined as a body mass index > 30 kg/ m2
  3. Statistically significant differences are indicated in bold