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Table 1 Baseline data

From: Improving individualized prescription in patients with multimorbidity through medication review

Baseline data (n = 428) Mean [sd] Frequency (%)
Demographic data
Age,mean [sd] 85.52 (7.67)  
Sex Men   143 (33.4%)
Women   285 (66.6%)
Origin Home   210 (49.1%)
Nursing Home   218 (50.9%)
Clinical, functional, and cognitive data
Medication management (only patients living at home) (n = 210)   57 (27.1%)
Barthel Index, mean [sd]   49.93 (32.14)
Barthel Index Independence: BI ≥ 95   51 (11.9%)
Mild dependence: BI 90–65   120 (28.0%)
Moderate dependence: BI 60–25   129 (30.2%)
Severe dependence: BI ≤ 20   128 (29.9%)
Cognitive status No dementia   112 (26.2%)
Mild dementia   62 (14.5%)
Moderate dementia (from GDS 5 to GDS 6B)   112 (26.2%)
Advanced dementia (from GDS 6C)   142 (33.1%)
Geriatric syndromes, mean [sd] 2.92 (1.52)  
Type of geriatric syndrome Falls   144 (33.6%)
Dysphagia   84 (19.6%)
Pain   99 (23.1%)
Depressive syndrome   198 (46.3%)
Insomnia   229 (53.5%)
Morbidities, mean [sd] 4.91 (2.16)  
Most frequent morbidities Hypertension   290 (67.8%)
Chronic renal failure   186 (43.5%)
T2DM   110 (25.7%)
Heart Failure   88 (20.6%)
Morbidities 1–2   43 (10.0%)
3–4   168 (39.3%)
5 or more   217 (50.7%)
Charlson Index, mean [sd] 3.26 (2.27)  
Frailty index, mean [sd] 0.39 (0.13)  
Frailty index, degrees No frailty (0–0.19)   32 (7.5%)
Mild frailty (0.20–0.35)   113 (26.4%)
Moderate frailty (0.36–0.50)   201 (47.0%)
Severe frailty (> 0.50)   82 (19.1%)
End-of-life patients   155 (36.2%)
Therapeutic goal Survival   41 (9.6%)
Functionality   223 (52.1%)
Symptomatic   164 (38.3%)
Pharmacological data
Number of chronic medications, mean [sd] 8.13 (3.88)  
Polypharmacy, degree 0–4 medications   80 (18.7%)
5–9 medications   205 (47.9%)
10 or more medications   143 (33.4%)
MRCI, mean [sd] 30.74 (16.26)  
MRCI, degree Low complexity (0–19.99)   109 (25.5%)
Moderate complexity (20–39.99)   208 (48.6%)
High complexity (40 or more)   111 (25.9%)
DBI, mean [sd] 1.17 (0.84)  
DBI, degree Low DBI (0–0.99)   70 (16.4%)
Moderate DBI (1–1.99)   197 (46.0%)
High DBI (2 or more)   161 (37.6%)
Inappropriate Prescriptions (IP), mean [sd] 3.14 (2.27)  
IP 0 IP   43 (10.0%)
1 or more IP   385 (90.0%)
2 or more IP   322 (75.2%)
3 or more IP   246 (57.5%)
  1. Abbreviations: Sd Standard deviation, BI Barthel index, GDS Geriatric syndromes, T2DM Type 2 diabetes mellitus, MR Medication review, MRCI Medication regimen complexity index, DBI Drug burden index