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Table 3 Associations between frailty status and inflammatory/coagulation/endothelial/cardiac biomarkers in men with clinically-apparent CVD

From: Associations between inflammation, coagulation, cardiac strain and injury, and subclinical vascular disease with frailty in older men: a cross-sectional study

  Model 1† Model 2 (n = 295)
Odds ratio for pre-frailty vs robustness (95% confidence interval) Odds ratio per standard deviation increase (95% confidence interval) p Odds ratio for frailty vs robustness (95% confidence interval) Odds ratio per standard deviation increase (95% confidence interval) p Odds ratio for pre-frailty vs robustness (95% confidence interval) Odds ratio per standard deviation increase (95% confidence interval) p Odds ratio for frailty vs robustness (95% confidence interval) Odds ratio per standard deviation increase (95% confidence interval) p
Inflammatory biomarkers
 log CRP 1.46 (1.07–1.98) 1.62 (1.09–2.40) 0.02 1.53 (1.07–2.19) 1.74 (1.09–2.78) 0.02 1.59 (1.14–2.22) 1.83 (1.18–2.83) 0.007 1.20 (0.79–1.80) 1.26 (0.74–2.15) 0.39
 log IL-6 1.17 (0.69–1.97) 1.13 (0.75–1.70) 0.56 2.01 (1.12–3.63) 1.72 (1.09–2.72) 0.02 0.85 (0.49–1.48) 0.88 (0.58–1.35) 0.57 1.58 (0.83–3.04) 1.43 (0.86–2.37) 0.17
Coagulation biomarkers
 log tPA 1.90 (0.84–4.21) 1.34 (0.92–1.96) 0.13 1.39 (0.53–3.66) 1.16 (0.75–1.81) 0.51
 log D-dimer 0.67 (0.38–1.18) 0.76 (0.52–1.12) 0.16 1.02 (0.54–1.91) 1.01 (0.66–1.55) 0.96
Endothelial biomarkers
 log vWF 1.19 (0.60–2.35) 1.10 (0.77–1.56) 0.61 1.68 (0.75–3.73) 1.31 (0.86–1.99) 0.20
Cardiac biomarkers
 log hs-cTnT 0.80 (0.46–1.38) 0.84 (0.56–1.27) 0.42 4.51 (2.11–9.63) 3.07 (1.74–5.40) 0.0001 0.69 (0.39–1.22) 0.76 (0.49–1.16) 0.20 4.06 (1.84–8.95) 2.84 (1.58–5.12) 0.0005
 log NT-proBNP 0.83 (0.64–1.07) 0.73 (0.50–1.11) 0.15 1.13 (0.83–1.54) 1.22 (0.75–1.98) 0.42
  1. Model 1: Adjusted for age, eGFR, smoking status, polypharmacy, cognitive impairment, number of non-cardiovascular comorbidities, social class, BMI class, and systolic blood pressure. Model 2: also mutually-adjusted for biomarkers/imaging markers with p < 0.05 in Model 1
  2. BMI body mass index, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, CRP C-reactive protein, IL-6 interleukin-6, tPA tissue plasminogen activator, vWF von Willebrand factor, hs-cTnT high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T, NT-proBNP N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide
  3. †For Model 1, n varies by variable: log CRP n = 297, log IL-6 n = 301, log tPA n = 294, log D-dimer n = 294, log vWF n = 294, log hs-cTnT n = 298, log NT-proBNP n = 298