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Table 1 Socio-demographic and sleep characteristics of adults by metabolic syndrome

From: Sleep characteristic profiles and the correlation with spectrum of metabolic syndrome among older adult: a cross-sectional study

Variable Total (n = 1499) Metabolic syndrome P
Yes (n = 449) No (n = 1050)
Age 72.39 ± 5.65 71.81 ± 5.41 72.64 ± 5.74 0.008
Gender      < 0.001
  male 668(44.6) 161(35.9) 507(48.3)  
  female 831(55.4) 288(64.1) 543(51.7)  
BMI 24.08 ± 3.54 26.32 ± 3.26 23.12 ± 3.20  < 0.001
Educational attainment     0.644
  Illiteracy 664(44.3) 207(46.1) 457(43.5)  
  Primary school 549(36.6) 158(35.2) 391(37.2)  
  junior school 286(19.1) 84(18.7) 202(19.2)  
Marital     0.053
  Single 264(17.6) 66(14.7) 198(18.9)  
  Married 1235(82.4) 383(85.3) 852(81.8)  
Smoking     0.974
  Never 1137(75.9) 342(76.2) 795(75.7)  
  Former 93(6.2) 27(6.0) 66(6.3)  
  Current 269(17.9) 80(17.4) 189(18.0)  
Alcohol use     0.199
  Never 1247(83.2) 365(81.3) 882(84.0)  
  Drinker 252(16.8) 84(18.7) 168(16.0)  
Physical activity     0.346
  Active 662(44.2) 259(57.7) 578(55.0)  
  Inactive 837(55.8) 190(42.3) 472(45.0)  
Depression     0.357
  No depression 1298(86.6) 390(86.9) 908(86.5)  
  Mild depression 151(10.1) 40(8.9) 111(10.6)  
  Moderate to depression 27(1.8) 8(1.8) 19(1.8)  
  Moderate to severe depression 19(1.3) 9(2.0) 10(1.0)  
  Major depression 4(0.3) 2(0.4) 2(0.2)  
PSQI
Subjective sleep quality     0.463
  Very good 490(32.7) 153(34.1) 337(32.1)  
  General 791(52.8) 229(51.0) 562(53.5)  
  Bad 186(12.4) 54(12.0) 132(12.6)  
  Very bad 32(2.1) 13(2.9) 19(1.8)  
Sleep efficiency     0.172
  ≥ 85% 843(56.2) 254(56.6) 589(56.1)  
  75% ~ 84% 303(20.2) 101(22.5) 202(19.2)  
  < 75% 353(23.5) 94(20.9) 159(24.7)  
Sleep duration     0.824
  6-8 h 1134(75.7) 336(74.8) 798(76.0)  
  < 6 h 180(12.0) 54(12.0) 126(12.0)  
  > 8 h 185(12.3) 59(13.1) 126(12.0)  
Sleep latency     0.111
  ≤ 15 min 540(36.0) 161(35.9) 379(36.1)  
  16-30 min 654(43.6) 196(43.7) 458(43.6)  
  31-60 min 165(11.0) 40(8.9) 125(11.9)  
  > 60 min 140(9.3) 52(11.6) 88(8.4)  
Sleep drug     0.821
  Not use 1412(94.2) 422(94.0) 990(94.3)  
  Use 87(5.8) 27(6.0) 60(5.7)  
Sleep disturbances     0.180
  None 360(24.0) 118(26.3) 242(23.0)  
  Mild 1051(70.1) 306(68.2) 745(71.0)  
  Moderate-severe 88(5.9) 25(5.6) 63(6.0)  
Daytime dysfunction     0.438
  None 980(65.4) 287(63.9) 693(66.0)  
  Yes 519(34.6) 162(36.1) 357(34.0)  
PSQI score 4.69 ± 3.28 4.71 ± 3.47 4.69 ± 3.20 0.915
PSQI     0.482
  PSQI ≤ 5 1056(70.4) 322(71.7) 734(69.9)  
  PSQI > 5 443(29.6) 127(28.3) 316(30.1)  
Bed time     0.592
  < 21:00 599(40.0) 183(40.8) 416(39.6)  
  21:00 ~ 22:00 849(56.6) 248(55.2) 601(57.2)  
  22:01 ~ 23:00 42(2.8) 16(3.6) 26(2.5)  
  > 23:00 9(0.6) 2(0.4) 7(0.7)  
Rise time     0.199
  < 5:00 221(14.7) 61(13.6) 160(15.2)  
  5:00 ~ 6:00 1146(76.5) 338(75.3) 808(77.0)  
  6:01 ~ 7:00 116(7.7) 44(9.8) 72(6.9)  
  > 7:00 16(1.1) 6(1.3) 10(0.9)  
  1. BMI Body Mass Index
  2. PSQI the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index