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Table 1 Characteristics of the study sample and group comparison (n = 312)

From: Physical functioning associated with life-space mobility in later life among men and women

Variable Total group Men Women p-value
Sex, n (%)
 Males 147 (47) - -  
 Females 165 (53) - -  
Age, n (%)     0.0211
 75 107 (34) 51 (35) 56 (34)  
 80 94 (30) 55 (37) 39 (23)  
 85 67 (22) 26 (18) 41 (25)  
 90 44 (14) 15 (10) 29 (18)  
Marital status, n (%)      < 0.0011
 Married 164 (53) 114 (78) 50 (30)  
 Widows/widowers 119 (38) 22 (15) 97 (59)  
 Never married 13 (4) 4 (3) 9 (6)  
 Divorced 16 (5) 7 (5) 9 (6)  
Type of housing, n (%)      < 0.0011
 Own house 157 (50) 94 (64) 63 (38)  
 Apartment 155 (50) 53 (36) 102 (62)  
Type of living area, n (%)     0.0452
 Living in town > 5000 inhabitants 205 (66) 87 (60) 118 (72)  
 Living in village 200–5000 inhabitants 68 (22) 41 (28) 27 (16)  
 Living in small village < 200 inhabitants 13 (4) 7 (5) 7 (4)  
 Living in the countryside, not in village 25 (8) 12 (8) 13 (8)  
Use of assistive devices, n (%)     0.0041
 Yes 155 (50) 60 (41) 95 (58)  
 No 156 (50) 86 (59) 70 (42)  
Driving a car      < 0.0011
 Yes 160 (51) 108 (73) 51 (32)  
 No 152 (59) 39 (27) 113 (68)  
LSA total score (0–120), mean (SD) 64 (23) 72 (21) 58 (23)  < 0.0012
 Independent life-spacea (0–5), median (Q1-Q3) 4 (2–5) 5 (4–5) 4 (1–5)  < 0.0012
 Assistive life-spaceb (0–5), median (Q1-Q3) 5 (4–5) 5 (4–5) 4 (3–5)  < 0.0012
 Maximal life-spacec (0–5), median (Q1-Q3) 5 (5–5) 5 (5–5) 5 (4–5) 0.062
SPPB total score (0–12), median (Q1-Q3) 10 (7–11) 10 (8–12) 9 (7–11) 0.0012
 total balance (0–4), median (Q1-Q3) 4 (3–4) 4 (4–4) 4 (3–4)  < 0.0012
 gait speed (0–4), median (Q1-Q3) 3 (2–4) 3 (3–4) 3 (2–4)  < 0.0012
 chair stand (0–4), median (Q1-Q3) 1 (1–1) 1 (1–1) 1 (1–1) 0.242
PEF mean (SD) 400 (119) 469 (116) 340 (85)  < 0.0012
Grip strength mean (SD) 0.55 (0.18) 0.6 (0.15) 0.51 (0.19)  < 0.0012
Vision (1–5) median (Q1-Q3) 2 (2–3) 2 (2–3) 2 (2–3) 4.762
 good/bad n (%) 275 (88)/36 (12) 127 (86)/20 (14) 148 (90)/16 (10)  
Hearing (1–5) median (Q1-Q3) 3 (3–4) 3 (3–4) 4 (3–4) 0.0042
 good/bad, n (%) 271 (87)/40 (13) 119 (81)/28 (19) 152 (92)/12 (8)  
Dizziness (1–3) median (Q1-Q3) 1 (1–3) 1 (1–2) 1 (1–3) 0.292
 None or mild/substantial, n (%) 217 (70)/95 (30) 98 (67)/49 (33) 119 (72)/46 (28)  
  1. 1 χ2 2 Mann–Whitney U-test a highest life-space level obtained without any assistance b highest life-space level reached with help from equipment but not another person c maximal life-space level indicates the greatest distance travelled irrespective of assistance from equipment and/or another person