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Table 1 Characteristics of the total cohort (n = 2,368) and males (n = 1,050) and females (n = 1,318)

From: The influence of adiposity on the interactions between strength, physical function and cognition among older adults in the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study

Variable Total Males Females P-value
Age, yearsa 62.6 (12.3) 63.2 (12.5) 62.1 (12.4) 0.0171
 50–65 1,425 (60%) 619 (59%) 806 (61%) 0.277
  > 65 943 (40%) 431 (41%) 512 (39%)
Weight, kga 77.5 (20.9) 84.5 (18.1) 71.3 (18.6)  < 0.001
Height, cma 167.5 (14.0) 175.9 (9.5) 162.5 (8.6)  < 0.001
Body mass index, kg/m2a 27.3 (6.0) 27.5 (5.2) 27.1 (6.9) 0.0424
 Normal, n (%) 690 (29%) 265 (25%) 425 (33%)  < 0.001
 Overweight, n (%) 1,019 (43%) 510 (49%) 509 (39%)
 Obese, n (%) 659 (28%) 275 (26%) 384 (29%)
SF-36 MCS, (1–100 points) a 62.2 (15.7) 62.5 (14.7) 61.9 (16.3) 0.2114
SF-36 PCS, (1–100 points) a 50.5 (11.0) 50.8 (9.8) 50.2 (11.9) 0.0631
Highest level of education
 None/some high school 1325 (56%) 568 (54%) 757 (57%) 0.104
 High school/Tertiary 1043 (44%) 482 (46%) 561 (43%)
Alcohol, g/da 7.3 (20.0) 13.7 (26.7) 3.5 (12.7)  < 0.001
Smoking status, n (%)
 Current smoker 129 (5%) 63 (6%) 66 (5%)  < 0.001
 Ex-smoker 858 (36%) 467 (45%) 391 (30%)
 Non-smoker 1381 (58%) 520 (50%) 861 (65%)
Diabetes status, n (%)
 Normal 1757 (74%) 712 (68%) 1045 (79%)  < 0.001
 Diabetes 242 (10%) 135 (13%) 107 (8%)
 Impaired fasting glucose 369 (16%) 203 (19%) 166 (13%)
Cardiovascular disease risk, n (%)
 Yes 1181 (50%) 593 (56%) 588 (45%)  < 0.001
 No 1187 (50%) 457 (44%) 730 (55%)
Physical activity, min/wk a 240 (420) 270 (480) 210 (360)  < 0.001
 Sufficient, n (%) 1515 (64%) 699 (67%) 816 (62%) 0.050
 Insufficient, n (%) 609 (26%) 246 (23%) 363 (28%)
Depressive symptoms, n (%)
 No 2144 (90%) 962 (92%) 1182 (90%) 0.119
 Mild 133 (6%) 57 (5%) 76 (6%)
 Severe 91 (4%) 31 (3%) 60 (4%)
CESD score 0.10 (0.29) 0.08 (0.28) 0.10 (0.30) 0.1095
Income per year, n (%)
  ≥ $80,000, 838 (39%) 446 (44%) 392 (34%)  < 0.001
 $40,000–79,999 636 (29%) 285 (28%) 351 (30%)
 $30,000–39,999 229 (11%) 106 (11%) 123 (11%)
 $20,000–29,999 240 (11%) 96 (10%) 144 (12%)
 $10,000–19,999 185 (9%) 60 (6%) 125 (11%)
 $0–9,999 31 (1%) 8 (1%) 23 (2%)
Lower leg muscle strength, kga 23.3 (17.0) 30.4 (19.4) 18.9 (13.6)  < 0.001
Timed-up-and-go, seca 5.84 (1.72) 5.66 (1.72) 6.02 (1.76)  < 0.001
Cognitive Reserve [STW (0–60)] a 51 (7) 50 (7) 51 (6) 0.0628
Processing Speed [SDMT (0–110)] a 50 (13) 48 (13) 51 (12)  < 0.001
Verbal Learning [CVLT (0–16)] a 6 (3) 6 (3) 7 (4)  < 0.001
Global Cognition [MMSE (0–30)] a 29 (1) 28 (2) 29 (2)  < 0.001
  1. Data are number (%) or mean (standard deviation) when normally distributed. aMedian (interquartile range) when not normally distributed. CVLT California Verbal Learning Test (n = 2,337), MMSE Mini Mental State Exam (n = 967), SDMT Symbol–Digit Modalities Test (n = 2,341), STW Spot-the-Word (n = 2,299) Significant between group difference P < 0.05