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Table 1 Estimation of the basic characteristics of the participants

From: Association between total protein intake and low muscle mass in Korean adults

  ASM/weight P-value
Normal
N = 15,244
Low
N = 751
Age (years)    < 0.001
 19–39 98.1 (0.3) 1.9 (0.3)  
 40–64 96.1 (0.4) 3.9 (0.4)  
  ≥ 65 90.5 (0.7) 9.5 (0.7)  
Sex    0.001
 Male 96.8 (0.3) 3.2 (0.3)  
 Female 95.6 (0.3) 4.4 (0.3)  
Education (years)    < 0.001
  < 6 92.5 (0.6) 7.5 (0.6)  
 6–9 94.6 (0.8) 5.4 (0.8)  
 9–12 97.1 (0.3) 2.9 (0.3)  
  ≥ 12 97.8 (0.3) 2.2 (0.3)  
Income    < 0.001
 Lowest 93.3 (0.6) 6.7 (0.6)  
 Others 96.8 (0.3) 3.2 (0.3)  
Smoking status    0.006
 Never smoker 96.1 (0.3) 3.9 (0.3)  
 Ex–smoker 94.6 (0.7) 5.4 (0.7)  
 Current smoker 96.8 (0.4) 3.2 (0.4)  
Alcohol consumption    0.145
 Risky alcohol 96.9 (0.5) 3.1 (0.5)  
 Non-risky alcohol 96.1 (0.3) 3.9 (0.3)  
Physical activity    0.005
 Yes 96.7 (0.3) 3.3 (0.3)  
 No 95.6 (0.3) 4.4 (0.3)  
 BMI (kg/m2) 23.45 ± 0.04 27.33 ± 0.24 < 0.001
 Calorie (kcal/day) 2047.21 ± 10.89 1722.09 ± 40.89 < 0.001
 Fat (%) 17.59 ± 0.12 15.60 ± 0.41 < 0.001
 Dietary protein intake (g/kg/day) 1.17 ± 0.01 0.86 ± 0.02 < 0.001
Hypertension    < 0.001
 No 97.3 (0.2) 2.7 (0.2)  
 Yes 90.4 (0.8) 9.6 (0.8)  
Diabetes mellitus    < 0.001
 No 96.5 (0.3) 3.5 (0.3)  
 Yes 91.0 (1.0) 9.0 (1.0)  
Dyslipidemia    < 0.001
 No 96.5 (0.3) 3.5 (0.3)  
 Yes 93.0 (0.8) 7.0 (0.8)  
  1. Abbreviation: ASM Appendicular skeletal muscle mass, BMI Body mass index
  2. Data is presented as mean ± standard error or percentage (standard error)