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Table 1 Median (IQR) of DIORs one year before and after spousal bereavement in subgroups

From: Dynamical indicators in time series of healthcare expenditures predict mortality risk of older adults following spousal bereavement

Group DIORs Pre Bereavement Post Bereavement P-value of difference in pairs
All (N = 51,890) Average 0.208 (0.697) 0.299 (1.377)  < 0.001
Slope 0.007 (7) 0.200 (10)  < 0.001
Mean Squared Error 0.522 (4.237) 0.715 (6.864)  < 0.001
Autocorrelation 0.017 (0.391) 0.019 (0.378) 0.065
Males (N = 17,813) Average 0.234 (0.875) 0.355 (1.901)  < 0.001
Slope 0.020 (8) 0.100 (12)  < 0.001
Mean Squared Error 0.714 (5.750) 1.020 (9.887)  < 0.001
Autocorrelation 0.039 (0.446) 0.041 (0.417) 0.011
Females (N = 34,077) Average 0.198 (0.618) 0.277 (1.165)  < 0.001
Slope 0.000 (6) 0.200 (9)  < 0.001
Mean Squared Error 0.446 (3.539) 0.592 (5.583)  < 0.001
Autocorrelation 0.007 (0.358) 0.009 (0.353) 0.613
65–69 (N = 12,946) Average 0.130 (0.355) 0.168 (0.458)  < 0.001
Slope 0.000 (4) 0.001 (6)  < 0.001
Mean Squared Error 0.239 (1.541) 0.297 (2.290)  < 0.001
Autocorrelation -0.020 (0.225) -0.020 (0.226) 0.535
70–74 (N = 13,361) Average 0.170 (0.464) 0.229 (0.700)  < 0.001
Slope 0.000 (4) 0.090 (7)  < 0.001
Mean Squared Error 0.371 (2.685) 0.485 (3.998)  < 0.001
Autocorrelation -0.011 (0.279) 0.009 (0.282) 0.996
75–79 (N = 12,046) Average 0.232 (0.719) 0.339 (1.454)  < 0.001
Slope 0.020 (7) 0.200 (11)  < 0.001
Mean Squared Error 0.623 (4.846) 0.890 (8.292)  < 0.001
Autocorrelation 0.022 (0.387) 0.026 (0.384) 0.775
80–84 (N = 8,762) Average 0.328 (1.372) 0.608 (3.454)  < 0.001
Slope 0.200 (11) 0.400 (20) 0.015
Mean Squared Error 1.121 (7.534) 1.752 (13.195)  < 0.001
Autocorrelation 0.107 (0.505) 0.112 (0.489) 0.444
85plus (N = 4,775) Average 0.736 (3.477) 2.139 (6.952)  < 0.001
Slope 1.000 (26) 1.100 (39) 0.507
Mean Squared Error 2.442 (11.412) 3.822 (18.413)  < 0.001
Autocorrelation 0.316 (0.676) 0.263 (0.572)  < 0.001
  1. IQR = Interquartile Range
  2. Slope medians and IQRs have been multiplied by 1000 for digit uniformity across the table