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Table 1 Baseline (1990–1992) participant characteristics by frailty status at visit 5 (2011–2013)

From: Subclinical cardiovascular disease and frailty risk: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study

Characteristic Frailty Pre-Frailty Robust P
(N = 360) (N = 2417) (N = 2422)
Demographic Variables
 Age, years 57.33 ± 5.56 55.88 ± 5.25 53.87 ± 4.65 < 0.001
 Male sex 121/360 (33.6) 960/2417 (39.7) 1080/2422 (44.6) < 0.001
 African Americans 92/360 (25.6) 542/2417 (22.4) 430/2422 (17.8) < 0.001
 Education     < 0.001
  Less than high school 90/360 (25.0) 366/2411 (15.2) 247/2419 (10.2)  
  High school 129/360 (35.8) 799/2411 (33.1) 747/2419 (30.9)  
  College 141/360 (39.2) 1246/2411 (51.7) 1425/2419 (58.9)  
 Smoking     0.142
  Never 172/359 (47.9) 1079/2410 (44.8) 1082/2419 (44.7)  
  Former 130/359 (36.2) 913/2410 (37.9) 972/2419 (40.2)  
  Current 57/359 (15.9) 418/2410 (17.3) 365/2419 (15.1)  
 Drinking     < 0.001
  Never 84/358 (23.5) 547/2410 (22.7) 466/2418 (19.3)  
  Former 86/358 (24.0) 425/2410 (17.6) 342/2418 (14.1)  
  Current 188/358 (52.5) 1438/2410 (59.7) 1610/2418 (66.6)  
Physiological and Lab Variables
 Body mass index, kg/m2 30.57 ± 6.58 28.11 ± 5.07 26.67 ± 4.40 < 0.001
 SBP, mmHg 122.49 ± 18.12 118.85 ± 16.38 115.59 ± 16.23 < 0.001
 DBP, mmHg 73.06 ± 10.13 71.97 ± 9.65 71.77 ± 9.87 < 0.001
 Heart rate, /min 67.06 ± 9.47 65.1 ± 9.85 64.19 ± 9.60 < 0.001
 Total cholesterol, mg/dl 5.43 ± 0.94 5.43 ± 1.00 5.32 ± 0.94 < 0.001
 HDL, mg/dl 1.22 (0.96–1.5) 1.24 (1.01–1.55) 1.24 (1.01–1.6) 0.044
 LDL, mg/dl 3.44 ± 0.86 3.45 ± 0.95 3.35 ± 0.88 < 0.001
 Triglycerides, mg/dl 1.34 (0.95–1.9) 1.29 (0.94–1.8) 1.19 (0.86–1.7) < 0.001
 Creatinine, mg/ml 1.12 ± 0.18 1.13 ± 0.19 1.14 ± 0.18 < 0.001
 Blood glucose, mmol/l 6.36 ± 2.35 6.05 ± 1.86 5.79 ± 1.37 0.001
Chronic Medical Conditions
 Hypertension 120/359 (33.4) 602/2413 (24.9) 431/2415 (17.8) < 0.001
 Diabetes mellitus 60/359 (16.7) 251/2410 (10.4) 129/2415 (5.3) < 0.001
 Cancer 60/354 (16.9) 408/2372 (17.2) 358/2394 (15) 0.099
 COPD 2/218 (0.9) 20/1591 (1.3) 22/1658 (1.3) 0.878
 Cognition Z scorea −0.32 ± 1.07 0.10 ± 0.95 0.22 ± 0.83 < 0.001
  1. Values are expressed as n/N (%), mean ± SD, and median (25th, 75th). SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HDL high density lipoprotein, LDL Low density lipoprotein, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  2. aMean of Digit Symbol Substitution Test Z score, Word Fluency Test Z score, and Delayed Word Recall Z score