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Table 4 Number of specialists who prescribed a PPI, benzodiazepine, or antipsychotic each yeara,b

From: Prescribing trends of proton pump inhibitors, antipsychotics and benzodiazepines of medicare part d providers

Specialty 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
PPI
 Gastroenterologists 11,739 (92.5%) 11,983 (92.8%) 12,150 (92.8%) 12,362 (92.6%) 12,582 (92.6%) 12,778 (92.3%) 12,988 (92.7%)
 General Practitioners 159,412 (62.6%) 161,208 (63.4%) 162,412 (63.1%) 161,852 (62.4%) 161,821 (61.8%) 161,125 (60.9%) 160,972 (60.4%)
 Specialists 54,827 (17.5%) 55,320 (17.6%) 54,259 (17.1%) 52,641 (16.5%) 51,018 (15.9%) 48,767 (15.1%) 46,854 (14.4%)
 Surgeons 5572 (7.5%) 5593 (7.5%) 5496 (7.3%) 5289 (7.1%) 5392 (7.2%) 5207 (7.0%) 5158 (6.9%)
 Mid-level Practitioners 55,398 (14.1%) 61,540 (14.8%) 68,336 (15.6%) 74,788 (16.1%) 80,947 (16.5%) 86,126 (16.3%) 92,616 (16.6%)
 Alternative 34 (1.9%) 38 (2.8%) 32 (2.8%) 34 (2.9%) 28 (2.3%) 41 (3.1%) 26 (1.9%)
Totalc 287,037 (27.4%) 295,682 (27.6%) 302,685 (27.5%) 306,966 (27.1%) 311,788 (26.8%) 314,044 (26.1%) 318,614 (25.7%)
Benzodiazepines
 Psychiatrists 25,849 (61.6%) 26,184 (62.4%) 26,069 (61.9%) 25,803 (61.4%) 25,436 (60.4%) 24,767 (58.7%) 24,277 (57.2%)
 Sleep Medicine 68 (64.2%) 120 (64.9%) 163 (66.5%) 197 (62.5%) 227 (58.8%) 269 (61.4%) 306 (61.6%)
 General Practitioners 131,531 (51.7%) 130,375 (51.3%) 129,094 (50.2%) 126,712 (48.9%) 124,210 (47.4%) 121,037 (45.8%) 117,819 (44.2%)
 Specialists 51,493 (18.2%) 50,539 (17.7%) 48,813 (17.0%) 46,828 (16.2%) 45,082 (15.5%) 42,201 (14.3%) 39,515 (13.3%)
 Surgeons 5397 (7.3%) 5251 (7.0%) 4778 (6.4%) 4609 (6.2%) 4512 (6.0%) 4042 (5.4%) 3632 (4.9%)
 Mid-level Practitioners 42,804 (10.9%) 46,969 (11.3%) 51,411 (11.7%) 55,650 (12.0%) 60,194 (12.3%) 64,487 (12.2%) 68,868 (12.3%)
 Alternative 53 (3.0%) 62 (4.6%) 61 (5.3%) 62 (5.3%) 71 (5.8%) 72 (5.4%) 66 (4.7%)
Totalc 257,195 (24.5%) 259,500 (24.2%) 260,389 (23.6%) 259,861 (23.0%) 259,732 (22.3%) 256,875 (21.3%) 254,483 (20.5%)
Antipsychotics
 Psychiatrists 26,820 (63.9%) 26,881 (64.1%) 26,613 (63.2%) 26,875 (64.0%) 26,727 (63.4%) 26,282 (62.2%) 26,097 (61.5%)
 Sleep Medicine 6 (5.6%) 11 (5.9%) 16 (6.5%) 16 (5.1%) 24 (6.2%) 27 (6.2%) 36 (7.2%)
 General Practitioners 76,230 (29.9%) 76,679 (30.2%) 75,516 (29.3%) 76,617 (29.5%) 75,645 (28.9%) 74,276 (28.1%) 72,319 (27.1%)
 Specialists 11,856 (4.2%) 11,766 (4.1%) 11,420 (4.0%) 11,468 (4.0%) 11,109 (3.8%) 11,064 (3.8%) 10,722 (3.6%)
 Surgeons 518 (0.7%) 501 (0.7%) 416 (0.6%) 401 (0.5%) 350 (0.5%) 289 (0.4%) 293 (0.4%)
 Mid-level Practitioners 20,596 (5.2%) 23,139 (5.6%) 25,642 (5.8%) 29,855 (6.4%) 33,345 (6.8%) 37,282 (7.1%) 41,566 (7.4%)
 Alternative 22 (1.2%) 15 (1.1%) 13 (1.1%) 13 (1.1%) 12 (1.0%) 21 (1.6%) 12 (0.9%)
Totalc 136,048 (13.0%) 138,992 (13.0%) 139,636 (12.7%) 145,245 (12.8%) 147,212 (12.7%) 149,241 (12.4%) 151,045 (12.2%)
  1. aPercentage of all providers who prescribed a PPI, benzodiazepine, or antipsychotic in parentheses bDenominators are not shown because they are specific to year and specialty, which are different for PPIs vs BZRA/APs cPer Cochran-Armitage trend test, p-value was < 0.0001 for all class level yearly trends