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Table 4 Adjusted ordinal regression models for number of natural teeth and frailty (age ≥ 50 years)

From: Association between oral health and frailty: results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Characteristics Frailty Phenotype Frailty Index
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
More number of natural teeth 0.971 (0.960–0.981) 0.978 (0.967–0.989) 0.981 (0.969–0.992) 0.980 (0.974–0.986) 0.988 (0.981–0.994) 0.989 (0.983–0.996)
Older 1.066 (1.053–1.079) 1.049 (1.035–1.063) 1.048 (1.035–1.062) 1.101 (1.095–1.108) 1.066 (1.059–1.074) 1.066 (1.059–1.073)
Female 1.468 (1.224–1.760) 1.325 (1.088–1.614) 1.349 (1.106–1.646) 1.413 (1.293–1.543) 1.421 (1.228–1.645) 1.448 (1.250–1.678)
Poor diet quality 1.255 (1.041–1.513) 1.253 (1.042–1.507) 1.307 (1.089–1.568) 1.054 (0.967–1.149) 0.989 (0.908–1.078) 0.999 (0.916–1.090)
Living in rural areas   1.332 (1.081–1.641) 1.312 (1.068–1.611)   1.076 (0.997–1.184) 1.063 (0.966–1.170)
Low household income   1.247 (1.013–1.534) 1.198 (0.970–1.478)   1.215 (1.086–1.360) 1.189 (1.061–1.331)
Education, <  9 years   1.538 (1.246–1.900) 1.435 (1.159–1.777)   1.585 (1.417–1.773) 1.510 (1.347–1.692)
Living alone   0.998 (0.792–1.256) 0.977 (0.775–1.233)   1.285 (1.134–1.456) 1.273 (1.123–1.443)
No self/workplace insurance   3.467 (2.134–5.632) 3.452 (2.137–5.577)   3.293 (2.616–4.144) 3.233 (2.565–4.074)
Past/current smoker      1.345 (1.161–1.557) 1.341 (1.156–1.555)
Frequent alcohol drinking   0.970 (0.802–1.172) 0.961 (0.792–1.165)   0.778 (0.704–0.860) 0.778 (0.704–0.860)
Comorbidities, ≥ 2   1.363 (1.131–1.644) 1.357 (1.127–1.635)   6.710 (5.994–7.510) 6.699 (5.984–7.499)
Brushed after all three meals    0.790 (0.651–0.958)    0.842 (0.755–0.938)
Brushed before sleep       0.912 (0.824–1.010)
Floss    1.042 (0.804–1.352)    0.978 (0.852–1.123)
Interdental toothbrush    0.836 (0.637–1.097)    0.999 (0.880–1.133)
Mouthwash    0.793 (0.633–0.993)    0.930 (0.826–1.047)
Electronic brush       0.873 (0.698–1.091)
Other oral hygiene tools       1.005 (0.838–1.206)
No oral examination    1.115 (0.911–1.366)    1.056 (0.945–1.181)
No prophylactic dental treatment    1.120 (0.904–1.387)    1.050 (0.936–1.179)
  1. Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for frailty (outcome variable) shown. Variables with p < 0.05 from the descriptive analysis were included (excluded if frequency < 10 in any cell). Bold values denote statistical significance