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Table 3 Linear mixed modelling results showing the mean differences between pre- and post-training after adjusting for age, sex and previous training history

From: Effects of supervised high-intensity hardstyle kettlebell training on grip strength and health-related physical fitness in insufficiently active older adults: the BELL pragmatic controlled trial

Variable MD 95% CI 8a % Change
Grip strength (kg)
Right 7.1 (4.9, 9.3)* 1.66 24.6
left 6.3 (4.1, 8.4)* 1.48 22.4
Stair-climb time (s) -2.7 (-5.2, -0.2)* 0.55 -5.6
Stair-climb est. VO2 (ml.kg−1.min−1) 2.3 (0.2, 4.4)* 0.55 6.2
5 × floor transfer (s) -6.0 (-9.8, -2.2)* 0.80 -14.3
6-min walk distance (m) 41.7 (17.9, 65.5) * 0.85 7.0
30 s Sit to Stand (reps) 3.3 (0.9, 5.7)* 0.66 23.0
Predicted 1RM (kg) 16.2 (2.4, 30.0)* 0.57 23.3
Knee extension – peak force (N)
Right 61.6 (4.4, 118.8)* 0.52 19.1
Left 49.8 (-1.2, 100.7) 0.47 17.4
Hip extension – peak force (N)
Right 10.8 (-3.0, 24.5) 0.38 6.7
Left 21.0 (4.2, 37.8)* 0.60 12.7
SF36—health change 17.1 (4.4, 29.8)* 0.68 32.6
DXA – ASM (kg) 0.65 (0.08, 1.22)* 0.55 3.1
DXA – sarcopenia index (kg/m2) 0.23 (0.03, 0.42)* 0.57 3.1
  1. Only outcome measures with a significant pre- to post-training change are displayed
  2. a effect size: week 13 to week 29 (pre- to post-training); VO2, Oxygen uptake; 1RM, 1 Repetition Maximum; SF36, 36-Item Short Form Survey; DXA, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; ASM, appendicular skeletal muscle mass. *p < 0.05