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Table 6 Comparison between demographics of the NDG and that of the DG before and after matching

From: Improvement in prescriptions while maintaining overall health outcomes: a prospective observational study conducted in Japanese facilities for older people

  NDG DG Standardized difference
Before matching
 Number of people 416 321  
  Sex
  women, %
74.52 78.82 0.097
  Age
  years, mean ± SD
86.1 ± 7.9 86.28 ± 7.93 0.017
  EQ-5D-5L scores
  mean ± SD
0.64 ± 0.25 0.61 ± 0.24 0.12
  BI scores
  mean ± SD
61.9 ± 32.8 60.5 ± 31.4 0.043
  MMSE scores
  mean ± SD
16.5 ± 8.9 17.3 ± 8.7 0.089
  DBD scores
  mean ± SD
16.6 ± 13.7 16.4 ± 14.5 0.018
  VI scores
  mean ± SD
7.4 ± 2.6 7.5 ± 2.5 0.024
  Medication costs
  JPY/day, mean ± SD
434.1 ± 638.6 615.8 ± 712.8 0.27
  Number of medications
  mean ± SD
5.7 ± 3.1 8.8 ± 3.4 0.96
After matching
 Number of people 232 232  
  Sex
  women, %
78.5 77.2 0.032
  Age
  years, mean ± SD
86.0 ± 8.1 85.7 ± 8.5 0.034
  EQ-5D-5L scores
  mean ± SD
0.60 ± 0.26 0.60 ± 0.25 0.010
  BI scores
  mean ± SD
58.5 ± 33.5 57.8 ± 32.9 0.021
  MMSE scores
  mean ± SD
16.7 ± 9.6 16.7 ± 9.1 0.0055
  DBD scores
  mean ± SD
16.2 ± 12.9 16.9 ± 14.7 0.046
  VI scores
  mean ± SD
7.3 ± 2.8 7.3 ± 2.6 0.014
  Medication costs
  JPY/day, mean ± SD
548.3 ± 700.3 593.1 ± 811.2 0.059
  Number of medications
  mean ± SD
7.5 ± 2.8 7.6 ± 2.8 0.026
  1. SD standard deviation, EQ-5D-5L EuroQoL-5D-5L-proxy, BI Barthel Index, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, DBD Dementia Behaviour Disturbance Scale, VI Vitality Index
  2. NDG (not decrease group), participants who had increased or no change in the number of prescribed medicines were classified into this group
  3. DG (decrease group), participants in whom there was a decrease in the number of prescribed medicines in March 2020 compared to that of March 2019 were classified into this group