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Table 2 Characteristics of population in precarious and non-precarious caregivers (n = 111)

From: The relationship between social deprivation and a frailty index of cumulative deficits in French middle-aged caregivers

Variables N. of data available Whole population (n = 111) Non-precarious caregivers (n = 70) (a) Precarious caregivers (n = 20) (a) p
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Age (years) 111 59 [9] 60 [8] 55 [11.5] 0.021
 Female gender 111 87 (78.4) 56 (80) 13 (65) 0.23
 Educational level: 111     <  10−3
  Primary   19 (17.1) 8 (11.4) 8 (40)  
  Secondary   25 (22.5) 13 (18.6) 7 (35)  
  Tertiary   67 (60.4) 49 (70) 5 (25)  
 Professional situation: 111     <  10−3
  Active   69 (62.2) 42 (60) 13 (65)  
  Inactive   12 (10.8) 4 (5.7) 7 (35)  
  Retired   30 (27) 24 (34.3) 0 (0)  
 Socio-professional category (current or past): 110     0.024
  High profession   31 (28.2) 22 (31.4) 2 (10)  
  Intermediate profession   71 (64.6) 44 (62.9) 15 (75)  
  Trader, craftsman or farmer   4 (3.6) 3 (4.3) 0 (0)  
  Worker   4 (3.6) 1 (1.4) 3 (15)  
 Civil status:      <  10−3
  Couple 110 71 (64.6) 52 (74.3) 6 (30)  
  Single 110 39 (35.5) 18 (25.7) 14 (70)  
 Financial difficulties for needs (food, rent or charges) 106 16 (15.1) 4 (5.7) 10 (50) <  10−3
 Homeowner 108 88 (81.5) 68 (97.1) 5 (25) <  10−9
 Leisure within the year (sport, show or vacation) 110 101 (91.8) 70 (100) 11 (55) <  10−6
 Epices score (a) 90 9.8 [25.7] 6.8 [11.8] 48.5 [15.2] <  10−9
Caregiving characteristics
 Relationship to care recipient 101     0.174
  Parent   72 (71.3) 43 (65.2) 16 (84.2)  
  Child   10 (9.9) 9 (13.6) 0 (0)  
  Spouse   7 (6.9) 4 (6.1) 2 (10.5)  
  Other   12 (11.9) 10 (15.2) 1 (5.3)  
 Care recipient with neurological disease 100 59 (59) 33 (50.8) 15 (79) 0.036
CRA questionnaire scores for the five dimensions:
 Caregiver’s self-esteem problems 60 18 [6] 18 [5.5] 14.5 [8] 0.62
 Lack of family support 58 13.5 [8] 11.5 [6.8] 17 [7] 0.050
 Financial problems 56 7 [5] 6 [2.5] 8.5 [4] 0.06
 Disrupted schedule 60 15 [8] 12.5 [7.8] 15 [7.3] 0.09
 Health problems 58 10 [4.8] 10 [4.5] 9.5 [6.8] 0.57
Health characteristics
 Frailty index 111 0.22 ± 0.08 0.21 ± 0.07 0.26 ± 0.11 0.015
 Frailty index in class: 111     0.007
  Not frail   68 (61.3) 49 (70) 7 (35)  
  Frail   40 (36) 20 (28.6) 11 (55)  
  Severely frail   3 (2.7) 1 (1.4) 2 (10)  
 Perceived health VAS 110 75 [10] 75 [10] 60 [22.5] 0.001
 Financial assistance for long-term illness 100 21 (21) 12 (18.2) 6 (31.6) 0.22
 Smoking status: 110     0.005
  Never smoker   53 (48.2) 38 (54.3) 5 (25)  
  Former smoker   46 (41.8) 28 (40) 9 (45)  
  Current smoker   11 (10) 4 (5.7) 6 (30)  
 AUDIT questionnaire for alcohol misuse: 105     0.55
  No misuse   97 (92.4) 63 (94) 18 (90)  
  Harmful drinking   5 (4.8) 3 (4.5) 1 (5)  
  Alcohol dependence   3 (2.9) 1 (1.5) 1 (5)  
 General practitioner consulted within the year 110 109 (99.1) 69 (98.6) 20 (100) > 0.99
 Mammography screening within two years 81 68 (84) 47 (87) 7 (63.6) 0.08
 Cervical smear screening within three years 80 60 (75) 42 (79.3) 7 (58.3) 0.15
 Colorectal cancer screening within two years 95 40 (42.1) 25 (41) 10 (58.8) 0.27
  1. CRA Caregiver Reaction Assessment, VAS Visual Analog Scale, AUDIT Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test
  2. a Epices score was available in 90/111 individuals, allowing to define 70 non-precarious and 20 precarious caregivers. Quantitative variables are described using mean ± standard deviation, or median [interquartile range] in case of non-normality and qualitative variables are described using number (percentage)