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Table 3 Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of depression according to lifestyle risk factors-based subgroups

From: The relationship between lifestyle risk factors and depression in Korean older adults: a moderating effect of gender

Predictors Model 1 Model 2
OR (95% CI) p value OR (95% CI) p value
Classification of lifestyle risk factors (total)
  < 1 1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
 2 1.786 (1.308–2.440) < 0.001 1.620 (1.174–2.236) 0.003
  > 3 2.979 (1.903–4.632) < 0.001 2.341 (1.473–3.719) 0.001
Classification of lifestyle risk factors (men only)
  < 1 1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
 2 3.446 (1.208–9.829) 0.021 2.886 (1.003–8.299) 0.049
  > 3 4.510 (1.580–12.875) 0.005 3.109 (1.064–9.097) 0.038
Classification of lifestyle risk factors (women only)
  < 1 1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
 2 1.634 (1.174–2.273) 0.004 1.505 (1.067–2.124) 0.020
  > 3 3.363 (1.842–6.139) < 0.001 2.828 (1.527–5.239) 0.001
  1. Model 1: unadjusted
  2. Model 2: adjusted for age (and gender for total), body mass index, income, education level, marital status, residence area, and number of comorbidities. Lifestyle risk factors include smoking, at-risk alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and overall nutritional inadequacy