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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of study participants

From: The relationship between lifestyle risk factors and depression in Korean older adults: a moderating effect of gender

Variable Men
(n = 1622)
Women
(n = 2078)
Total
(n = 3700)
p value
Age (years), mean (SD) 72.5 (5.0) 72.5 (5.0) 72.6 (5.0) 0.356
Body mass index (kg/m2), mean (SD) 23.7 (2.9) 24.5 (3.3) 24.1 (3.1) <  0.001
Income (10,000 won/month), mean (SD) 243 (258) 202 (239) 220 (249) <  0.001
Education, n (%)     <  0.001
 Lower than elementary 515 (31.8) 1411 (67.9) 1926 (52.1)  
 Middle/high 787 (45.8) 556 (26.8) 1343 (36.3)  
 College or higher 320 (19.7) 111 (5.3) 431 (11.6)  
Marital status, n (%)     0.788
 Unmarried 12 (0.7) 18 (0.8) 29 (0.8)  
 Married 1610 (99.3) 2061 (99.2) 3671 (99,2)  
Past/current smoking, n (%) 1279 (78.9) 108 (5.2) 1387 (37.5) <  0.001
At-risk alcohol consumption, n (%) 177 (10.9) 34 (1.6) 211 (5.7) <  0.001
Physical inactivity, n (%) 1404 (41.7) 1963 (58.3) 3367 (91.0) <  0.001
Nutritional inadequacy, n (%) 803 (49.5) 1359 (65.4) 2162 (58.4) <  0.001
Dietary intakes
 Caloric intake (kcal/day), mean (SD) 1956.7 (733.4) 1465.2 (587.9) 1680.6 (699.5) <  0.001
 CHO intake (g/day), mean (SD) 328.1 (124.9) 266.2 (108.9) 293.3 (120.2) <  0.001
 Fat intake (g/day), mean (SD) 31.2 (24.4) 22.4 (18.3) 26.3 (21.7) <  0.001
 Protein (g/day), mean (SD) 65.0 (31.8) 47.1 (24.1) 54.9 (29.2) <  0.001
 Vitamin A (μgRAE/day), mean (SD) 340.5 (329.2) 268.6 (257.5) 299.8 (292.9) <  0.001
 Vitamin C (mg/day), mean (SD) 74.4 (84.9) 65.7 (76.2) 69.5 (80.2) 0.001
 Thiamine (mg/day), mean (SD) 1.5 (0.8) 1.2 (0.6) 1.3 (0.7) <  0.001
 Riboflavin (mg/day), mean (SD) 1.3 (0.8) 1.0 (0.6) 1.1 (0.7) <  0.001
 Niacin (mg/day), mean (SD) 13.2 (7.0) 9.5 (5.4) 11.1 (6.4) <  0.001
 Phosphorus (mg/day), mean (SD) 1049.8 (470.0) 786.0 (378.9) 901.7 (441.1) <  0.001
 Calcium (mg/day), mean (SD) 498.6 (341.6) 384.0 (276.8) 434.2 (312.1) <  0.001
 Iron (mg/day), mean (SD) 14.7 (10.3) 11.3 (9.1) 12.8 (9.8) <  0.001
 PHQ-9 score, mean (SD) 2.0 (3.5) 3.4 (4.6) 2.8 (4.2) <  0.001
 Depression, n (%) 68 (4.2) 209 (10.1) 277 (7.5) <  0.001
Number of comorbidities, n (%)     < .0001
 0 380 (23.4) 268 (12.9) 648 (17.5)  
 1 529 (32.6) 564 (27.1) 1093 (29.5)  
  > 2 713 (44.0) 1246 (60.0) 1959 (52.9)  
  1. PHQ Patient Health Questionnaire