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Table 1 Descriptive and univariate analyses of factors associated with PDI-drug consumption in drivers

From: Use of potentially driver-impairing drugs among older drivers

General characteristics, % (n) Missing, % (n) All PDI- PDI+ pa
n = 1783 n = 1410 n = 373
Sub-cohorts 0 (0)     <  0.001
Chronic pain   33.37 (595) 28.37 (400) 52.28 (195)  
Atrial fibrillation   33.82 (603) 36.88 (520) 22.25 (83)
Type 2 diabetes   32.81 (585) 34.75 (490) 25.47 (95)
Males 0 (0) 65.51 (1168) 68.94 (972) 52.55 (196) <  0.001
Age, M (SD) 0 (0) 75.88 (5.78) 75.98 (5.74) 75.52 (5.93) 0.254
Apparent age 0.28 (5)     0.010
  < Chronological age   23.84 (425) 24.89 (351) 19.84 (74)  
  = Chronological age   68.93 (1229) 68.65 (968) 69.97 (261)  
  > Chronological age   6.95 (124) 6.17 (87) 9.92 (37)  
BMI, M (SD) 3.48 (62) 28.18 (4.76) 28.17 (4.67) 28.22 (5.09) 0.793
eGFR, M (SD) 0.18 (328) 73.64 (20.43) 73.83 (20.17) 72.91 (21.39) 0.472
Smoking status 0.45 (8)     0.185
Never   63.15 (1126) 62.34 (879) 66.22 (247)  
Former   32.25 (575) 33.26 (469) 28.42 (106)  
Current   4.15 (74) 3.97 (56) 4.83 (18)  
Alcohol consumption 1.12 (20) 36.34 (648) 37.73 (532) 31.10 (116) 0.019
Living area 0 (0)     0.653
Rural or semi-rural   56.25 (1003) 56.52 (797) 55.23 (206)  
Urban   43.75 (780) 43.48 (613) 44.77 (167)  
Social lifestyle 0 (0)     <  0.001
Alone at home   25.86 (461) 22.77 (321) 37.53 (140)  
Accompanied at home   73.75 (1315) 76.81 (1083) 62.20 (232)  
Assisted living facility   0.39 (7) 0.43 (6) 0.27 (1)  
Achievement ≥ 9th Grade 1.51 (27) 63.99 (1141) 64.47 (909) 62.20 (232) 0.524
Work history 0.62 (11) 90.91 (1621) 91.77 (1294) 87.67 (327) 0.010
ADL score, M (SD) 0.34 (6) 5.94 (0.25) 5.95 (0.19) 5.87 (0.38) <  0.001
IADL score, M (SD) 0.28 (5) 3.91 (0.47) 3.92 (0.44) 3.86 (0.54) 0.002
Financial or logistical supports 0.17 (3) 90.24 (1609) 90.28 (1273) 90.08 (336) 0.958
Paramedical assistance 1.18 (21) 36.68 (654) 33.69 (475) 47.99 (179) <  0.001
Arterial disease 0.39 (7) 19.07 (340) 18.65 (263) 20.64 (77) 0.360
Atrial fibrillation 0.28 (5) 39.37 (702) 42.34 (597) 28.15 (105) <  0.001
High blood pressure 0.11 (2) 77.96 (1390) 78.87 (1112) 74.53 (278) 0.065
Heart failure 1.18 (21)     0.202
No   88.67 (1581) 88.51 (1248) 89.28 (333)  
Mild to moderate heart failure, NYHA I-II   7.40 (132) 7.80 (110) 5.90 (22)  
Severe heart failure, NYHA III-IV   2.75 (49) 2.48 (35) 3.75 (14)  
MMSE score 15.14 (270)     0.040
Probable moderate to severe cognitive impairment, <  24   4.88 (87) 4.47 (63) 6.43 (24)  
Probable mild cognitive impairment, [24–27]   14.47 (258) 13.55 (191) 17.96 (67)  
No cognitive impairment, ≥ 27   65.51 (1168) 66.24 (934) 62.73 (234)  
Parkinson’s disease 0.39 (7) 0.73 (13) 0.21 (3) 2.68 (10) <  0.001
History of severe stroke 0.45 (8) 2.02 (36) 1.84 (26) 2.68 (10) 0.310
Probable clinical depression (GDS-15 score ≥ 10) 22.27 (397) 4.99 (89) 4.33 (61) 7.51 (28) 0.007
History of depressive disorder 0.06 (1) 17.33 (309) 10.92 (154) 41.55 (155) <  0.001
Thyroid dysfunction 1.29 (23) 10.54 (188) 9.57 (135) 14.21 (53) 0.011
Type 2 diabetes 0.28 (5) 43.02 (767) 45.18 (637) 34.85 (130) <  0.001
History of severe hypoglycaemia 1.35 (24) 0.62 (11) 0.50 (7) 1.07 (4) 0.259
Sleep apnea 0.39 (7) 4.82 (86) 4.61 (65) 5.63 (21) 0.417
Pulmonary chronic obstructive disease or fibrosis 0.39 (7) 8.69 (155) 8.23 (116) 10.46 (39) 0.177
History of fall 0.73 (13) 6.62 (118) 5.25 (74) 11.80 (44) <  0.001
Arthropathy 0.22 (4) 46.83 (835) 42.62 (601) 62.73 (234) <  0.001
Chronic pain 0.17 (3) 54.23 (967) 48.51 (684) 75.87 (283) <  0.001
Polypharmacy 0 (0) 57.82 (1031) 52.06 (734) 79.62 (297) <  0.001
  1. Abbreviations. M (SD) mean (standard deviation), BMI body mass index in kg/m2, eGFR glomerular filtration rate in mL/min/1.73m2, ADL score Activities of Daily Living score (maximum score 6 indicating no disability in activities of daily living), IADL score Instrumental Activities of Daily Living score (maximum score 4 indicating no instrumental disability), NYHA New York Heart Association, MMSE score Mini-Mental State Examination score (maximum score 30 indicating no cognitive impairment), GDS-15 score 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale score (maximum score 15, the higher, the more important risk of depression), PDI Potentially Driver-Impairing, PDI+ drivers Drivers taking at least one PDI drug, PDI- drivers Drivers without any PDI drug in their treatment
  2. a Chi-squared or Fisher’s exact test for categorical data, Student’s t-test for continuous data and Mann-Whitney test for non-parametric continuous data. A p-value < 0.05 is significant