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Table 1 Baseline Characteristics of Study Participants absence of Depressive Symptoms at baseline

From: Sarcopenia and coronary heart disease synergistically increase the risk of new onset depressive symptoms in older adults

Variables Normal CHD Alone Sarcopenia Alone Co-occurring P-value
  (n = 635) (n = 174) (n = 63) (n = 25)  
Age (y) 66.0 ± 5.5 67.3 ± 5.6a 72.4 ± 6.5a,b 71.4 ± 6.3a,b <0.001
Sex (Male) 314(49.4) 48(27.6)a 19(30.2)a 5(20.0)a <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 25.39 ± 3.30 26.02 ± 3.64a 22.68 ± 3.11a,b 22.51 ± 2.71a,b <0.001
Grip strength (kg) 26.51 ± 9.53 23.32 ± 9.25a 16.04 ± 6.32a,b 16.52 ± 8.03a,b <0.001
SMI (kg/m2) 7.31 ± 1.01 7.08 ± 1.09 5.43 ± 0.91a,b 5.43 ± 0.56a,b <0.001
Gait speed (m/s) 1.01 ± 0.17 0.96 ± 0.16a 0.85 ± 0.19a,b 0.77 ± 0.22a,b <0.001
IPAQ (Met/wk) 2142(924,4147) 1848(693,4186) 2079(1386,3066) 1038(0,4697) 0.732
Widowed (%) 76(12.0) 26(14.9)a 21(33.3)b 6(24.0) 0.001
Living alone (%) 90(14.2) 21(12.1) 16(25.4) 5(20.0) 0.253
Illiteracy (%) 152(24.0) 45(25.9) 28(44.4)a 7(28.0) 0.006
Farming (%) 559(88.2) 156(89.7) 57(90.5) 22(88.0) 0.911
Fall history (%) 84(13.2) 25(14.4) 12(19.0) 8(32.0) 0.044
Drinking (%) 90(14.2) 12(6.9)a 8(12.7) 0(0.0) 0.002
Smoking (%) 180(28.4) 47(27.2) 22(34.9) 10(40.0) 0.326
MNA-SF 13.06 ± 1.12 13.15 ± 0.90 12.19 ± 1.74a,b 12.08 ± 1.58a,b < 0.001
Sleep Duration (h) 7.87 ± 1.32 8.12 ± 1.47 8.39 ± 1.30a 8.36 ± 2.33 0.005
Sleep quality (%)      0.003
 Very well 339(53.4) 65(37.6)a 29(46.0) 7(28.0)  
 Good 186(29.3) 61(35.3) 20(31.7) 9(36.0)  
 Not enough 56(8.5) 20(11.6) 6(9.5) 6(24.0)  
 Very poor 54(8.5) 27(15.6) 8(12.7) 3(12.0)  
Medicine use (%)
  Hypotensive drugs 222(35.0) 88(50.6)a 21(33.3)b 10(40.0) < 0.001
  Hypoglycemic drugs 41(6.5) 27(15.5)a 4(6.3)b 3(12.0) < 0.001
  Lipid-lowering drugs 78(12.3) 19(10.9) 2(3.2) 3(12.0) 0.237
  Cardiovascular drugs 2(0.3) 102(58.6)a 3(4.8)b 11(44.0)a,c < 0.001
  Gastrointestinal drugs 16(2.5) 3(1.7) 3(4.8) 1(4.0) 0.382
  Sleep drugs 34(5.4) 24(13.8)a 7(11.1) 5(20.0)a <0.001
Chronic conditions (%)
 Diabetes 66(10.4) 30(17.2) 14(22.2) 6(24.0)a,b 0.003
 Hypertension 320(50.4) 116(66.7)a 29(46.0)b 17(68.0) < 0.001
 Hyperlipidemia 236(37.2) 80(46.0) 11(17.5)a,b 11(44.0) 0.001
 Stroke 36(5.7) 15(8.6) 6(9.5) 3(12.0) 0.257
 Kidney disease 24(3.8) 10(5.7) 2(3.2) 1(4.0) 0.684
 Hepatic disease 11(1.7) 2(1.1) 0(0.0) 2(8.0) 0.059
 Biliary tract disease 19(3.0) 10(5.7) 4(6.3) 2(8.0) 0.164
 Peptic ulcer 22(3.5) 12(6.9) 4(6.3) 2(8.0) 0.160
 Osteoarthritis 82(12.9) 33(19.0) 8(12.7) 4(16.0) 0.231
 Parkinson disease 2(0.3) 1(0.6) 0(0.0) 1(4.0) 0.316
 Gout 3(0.5) 2(1.1) 0(0.0) 0(0.0) 0.642
 CCI 2.45 ± 0.76 3.63 ± 0.76a 3.24 ± 0.88a,b 4.32 ± 1.31a,b,c < 0.001
  1. Notes: CHD coronary heart disease; BMI body mass index; SMI skeletal muscle index; IPAQ international physical activity questionnaire; MET/wk metabolic equivalent task minutes per week; MNA-SF Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form; CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index
  2. aP < 0.05 versus Normal, bP < 0.05 versus CHD alone, c P < 0.05 versus Sarcopenia alone