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Table 4 The marginal means of healthcare and long-term care costs per month per participant estimated from GLMs

From: Effects of physician visit frequency for Parkinson’s disease treatment on mortality, hospitalization, and costs: a retrospective cohort study

  Total of healthcare and long-term care costs Healthcare costs for all diseases Inpatient healthcare costs for all diseases Healthcare costs for PD Inpatient healthcare costs for PD Long-term care costs
  Coefficient P-value Coefficient P-value Coefficient P-value Coefficient P-value Coefficient P-value Coefficient P-value
GLMsa −0.26 < 0.01 −0.40 < 0.01 −0.70 < 0.01 −0.01 0.90 −0.52 < 0.01 0.01 0.91
  Costs (SE) Costs (SE) Costs (SE) Costs (SE) Costs (SE) Costs (SE)
Physician visit frequency for PD treatment
 Lower frequency 3922 (84) 2382 (50) 2153 (59) 1041 (43) 1029 (47) 1483 (83)
 Higher frequency 3037 (62) 1594 (37) 1065 (39) 1033 (46) 612 (39) 1496 (61)
Sex
 Male 3414 (76) 2015 (46) 1689 (55) 1002 (43) 832 (47) 1436 (86)
 Female 3523 (71) 2011 (44) 1652 (53) 1068 (40) 876 (46) 1518 (61)
Age
 75–79 3469 (112) 2176 (67) 1828 (82) 1062 (57) 880 (64) 1321 (111)
 80–84 3604 (87) 2056 (52) 1696 (65) 1067 (48) 883 (55) 1541 (84)
 85–89 3557 (100) 2001 (58) 1710 (70) 1100 (57) 930 (62) 1569 (101)
  ≥ 90 3040 (110) 1638 (74) 1279 (82) 812 (65) 616 (66) 1476 (135)
Residential facility
 Home 3268 (57) 1958 (38) 1559 (42) 954 (32) 757 (33) 1330 (54)
 Retirement home 3771 (266) 1953 (145) 1548 (162) 940 (118) 683 (116) 1738 (225)
 Long-term care facility 3729 (123) 1431 (55) 1087 (58) 722 (46) 517 (44) 2131 (117)
 Health care institute 4959 (211) 4827 (265) 4855 (357) 3510 (395) 3129 (394) 13 (5)
Long-term care level
 None 2655 (74) 1903 (49) 1545 (59) 966 (46) 788 (50) 723 (54)
 Requiring help 3836 (199) 2275 (109) 2014 (144) 1263 (103) 1163 (124) 1792 (220)
 Long-term care level 1–2 4014 (106) 2004 (64) 1678 (77) 1068 (60) 905 (68) 1886 (99)
 Long-term care level 3–5 3966 (101) 2093 (68) 1733 (80) 1038 (57) 822 (62) 1936 (110)
Mortality
 No 2908 (94) 1656 (52) 1180 (54) 881 (50) 651 (50) 1314 (90)
 Yes 3852 (72) 2210 (44) 1902 (51) 1112 (39) 939 (43) 1647 (91)
Malignancy
 No 3479 (60) 1952 (37) 1615 (43) 1058 (36) 872 (40) 1550 (54)
 Yes 3473 (95) 2181 (60) 1817 (74) 980 (49) 807 (55) 1287 (98)
Ischemic heart disease
 No 3312 (63) 1897 (40) 1555 (47) 991 (37) 800 (39) 1447 (63)
 Yes 3695 (86) 2168 (48) 1829 (61) 1104 (46) 936 (54) 1546 (83)
Cerebrovascular disease
 No 3281 (99) 1786 (52) 1419 (59) 1022 (48) 829 (52) 1497 (103)
 Yes 3559 (58) 2111 (39) 1778 (49) 1045 (37) 867 (41) 1487 (52)
Dyslipidemia
 No 3580 (68) 2055 (42) 1724 (50) 1108 (40) 914 (44) 1500 (71)
 Yes 3349 (80) 1957 (47) 1589 (57) 938 (41) 763 (45) 1479 (82)
Diabetes mellitus
 No 3438 (67) 1943 (39) 1629 (47) 1042 (36) 866 (40) 1499 (67)
 Yes 3535 (79) 2119 (50) 1734 (61) 1031 (46) 834 (51) 1478 (71)
Dementia
 No 3034 (78) 1908 (51) 1495 (58) 928 (43) 713 (44) 993 (59)
 Yes 3704 (69) 2075 (39) 1773 (50) 1103 (38) 941 (45) 1698 (63)
  1. Costs were converted from Japanese yen to US dollars (USD 1 = JPY 110)
  2. Abbreviation: SE Standard error
  3. aGLMs only shows the result of physician visit frequency for PD treatment