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Table 2 Logistic regression of frailty index (FI) *frailty phenotype (FP) trajectory groups and associated factors

From: Longitudinal changes of frailty in 8 years: comparisons between physical frailty and frailty index

A. Demographics and Baseline morbidities
FP trajectories Stably robust + Improved frailty Worsened frailty + Stably frail
FI trajectories
(N)
Stable
(1839)
Moderate increase + Rapid increase
(369)
Stable
(102)
Moderate increase + Rapid increase
(497)
   Model 1a Model 2b Model 1a Model 2b Model 1a Model 2b
   OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value
Demographics
 Age 1 1.08 (1.06,1.10) < 0.001 1.04 (1.01,1.07) 0.003 1.05 (1.03,1.08) < 0.001 1.01 (0.98,1.04) 0.613 1.11 (1.09,1.13) < 0.001 1.05 (1.02,1.08) 0.001
 Sex (male vs female) 1 0.6 (0.4,0.8) 0.001 0.9 (0.6,1.4) 0.761 1.2 (0.8,1.9) 0.417 2.1 (1.3,3.5) 0.003 1.0 (0.7,1.3) 0.791 1.9 (1.2,2.9) 0.004
 Education (≤6 vs > 6 years) 1 1.8 (1.3,2.6) 0.001 1.3 (0.8,2.1) 0.268 1.2 (0.7,1.8) 0.483 0.7 (0.4,1.2) 0.189 1.8 (1.3,2.5) < 0.001 1.1 (0.7,1.9) 0.650
Baseline morbidities
 Diabetes 1 1.5 (1.0,2.2) 0.050 1.2 (0.7,2.0) 0.497 1.0 (0.5,2.1) 0.951 1.0 (0.5,2.2) 0.979 1.8 (1.3,2.6) 0.001 1.4 (0.8,2.5) 0.233
 Stroke 1 0.6 (0.2,1.4) 0.218 0.4 (0.2,1.1) 0.083 0.9 (0.2,4.1) 0.943 0.7 (0.2,3.6) 0.718 1.7 (0.8,3.3) 0.141 1.0 (0.4,2.7) 0.994
 Arthritis 1 1.3 (0.9,1.7) 0.122 1.0 (0.6,1.5) 0.869 1.2 (0.7,2.1) 0.435 1.1 (0.6,1.9) 0.773 0.8 (0.6,1.1) 0.180 0.6 (0.3,0.9) 0.012
B. Time-dependent variables
FP trajectories Stably robust + Improved frailty Worsened frailty + Stably frail
FI trajectories Stable Moderate increase + Rapid increase Stable Moderate increase + Rapid increase
Time-dependent variable trajectories     Model 2b    Model 2b    Model 2b
Comorbidityc 1    2.4 (1.6,3.5) < 0.001    0.9 (0.6,1.5) 0.734    2.4 (1.5,3.7) < 0.001
Self-rated healthd 1    2.2 (1.7,3.0) < 0.001    1.7 (1.2,2.5) 0.004    3.0 (2.1,4.2) < 0.001
Mobility impairmente 1    13.0 (8.5,19.8) < 0.001    13.5 (8.0,22.5) < 0.001    130.7 (74.4229.4) < 0.001
CES-D-10e 1    13.9 (8.8,22.0) < 0.001    7.6 (4.4,13.2) < 0.001    34.2 (20.6,56.6) < 0.001
Visual impairmentf 1    2.8 (1.9,4.0) < 0.001    1.1 (0.6,1.8) 0.853    2.1 (1.4,3.2) < 0.001
Hearing impairmentf 1    1.6 (1.0,2.4) 0.044    1.3 (0.8,2.3) 0.304    2.3 (1.5,3.7) < 0.001
Oral intake difficultyf     1.7 (1.2,2.4) 0.005    1.4 (0.9,2.2) 0.154    2.2 (1.5,3.3) < 0.001
Meet living expensesf 1    2.5 (1.6,4.0) < 0.001    1.5 (0.8,2.7) 0.220    1.9 (1.2,3.2) 0.010
SPMSQ (age ≥ 65)g 1    9.7 (4.5, 20.8) < 0.001    1.5 (0.4, 5.5) 0.578    9.2 (4.2,20.5) < 0.001
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, CES-D-10 Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, 10-item Likert score, SPMSQ Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire
  2. aModel 1: (included baseline characteristics and comorbidities only) adjusted for age, sex, education, baseline FP and FI score, and variables with p-value < 0.1 in Model 0 (see S4 Table)
  3. bModel 2: Model 1 + major time-dependent variables with p-value < 0.1 in Model 0 (see S4 Table)
  4. c(stable moderate + gradual increase + stable high) V.S stable low
  5. dlow, middle, high
  6. e(increase + stable high) vs (decrease + stable low)
  7. f(stable poor + decline) vs (stable good + improve)
  8. g(stable low + decrease) vs (stable high + improve)