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Table 1 The effect outcomes of group, hand dominance, and manual precision tasks on strength performance and strength-stability control

From: The impact of aging and reaching movements on grip stability control during manual precision tasks

Variables Strength performance Strength-stability control
  Grip force (kg) CV (%) Deviation error (kg) Absolute error (kg) Force-stability index (%)
  M ± SD t (p)/F(p)/Scheffe post-hoc M ± SD t (p)/F(p)/Scheffe post-hoc M ± SD t (p)/F(p)/Scheffe post-hoc M ± SD t (p)/F(p)/Scheffe post-hoc M ± SD t (p)/F(p)/Scheffe post-hoc
Group   8.746 (< 0.001)**   −10.263 (< 0.001)**   8.824 (< 0.001)**   0.258 (0.796)   −10.338 (< 0.001)**
 Young 2.24 ± 0.42   7.86 ± 4.73   0.25 ± 0.43   0.36 ± 0.34   10.52 ± 7.92  
 Older adult 1.93 ± 0.46   13.99 ± 9.56   −0.06 ± 0.46   0.35 ± 0.30   19.85 ± 14.00  
Hand dominance   0.517 (0.605)   −0.614 (0.540)   0.678 (0.498)   −0.702 (0.483)   −0.560 (0.575)
 Non-Dominant 2.09 ± 0.46   10.84 ± 7.53   0.09 ± 0.47   0.35 ± 0.33   15.09 ± 12.79  
 Dominant 2.07 ± 0.47   11.25 ± 8.85   0.07 ± 0.47   0.37 ± 0.31   16.65 ± 11.99  
Manual precision task   3.893 (p = 0.021)*   14.152 (p < 0.001)**   3.967 (0.019)*   10.380 (< 0.001)**   52.498 (< 0.001)**
 1. Stationary condition 2.09 ± 0.38 3 < 2
(p = 0.025)*
8.64 ± 11.02 1 < 2
(p < 0.001)**
1 < 3
(p < 0.001)**
0.10 ± 0.40 3 < 2
(p = 0.028)*
0.28 ± 0.31 1 < 2
(p = 0.005)**
1 < 3
(p < 0.001)**
8.82 ± 9.88 1 < 2
(p < 0.001)**
1 < 3
(p < 0.001)**
 2. Forward-reach condition 2.13 ± 0.48 12.02 ± 5.29 0.13 ± 0.48 0.38 ± 0.32 17.59 ± 12.33
 3. Backward-reach condition 2.01 ± 0.52 12.49 ± 6.69 0.01 ± 0.52 0.41 ± 0.31 19.69 ± 12.05
  1. Note. CV coefficient of variation, M ± SD mean ± standard deviation, t(p)/F(p) t-test (p value)/one-way ANOVA (p value)
  2. *Significant difference p < 0.05
  3. **Significant difference p < 0.001