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Table 4 Different indicators and cut-off points in defining sarcopenia

From: Effects of different exercise training modes on muscle strength and physical performance in older people with sarcopenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Diagnosis Criteria Target district Cut-off points
Muscle mass Muscle strength Physical performance
AWGS [72] countries from Asia ASMI by DXA: (M: < 7.0 kg/m2, F: < 5.4 kg/m2); Or ASMI by BIA: (M: < 7.0 kg/m2, F: < 5.7 kg/m2) HGS: (M:< 28 kg, F:< 18 kg) GS: < 1.0 m/s; Or 5-STS ≥12 s; Or SPPB: ≤9
EWGSOP-2010 [73] countries from Europe ASMI by DXA: (M: < 7.23 kg/m2, F: < 5.67 kg/m2); or ASMI by BIA: (M: < 8.87 kg/m2, F: < 6.42 kg/m2) HGS: (M: < 30 kg, F: < 20 kg) GS: < 1.0 m/s; or SPPB: ≤8
CDC [74] New Mexico ASM* < 2 standard deviations of a young reference population / /
National Center for Health Statistics [75] NHANES III SMI by BIA, M: < 10.75 kg/m2, F: < 6.75 kg/m2 / /
Park [62] Busan City, South Korea ASM2/weight <25.1% / /
Chung [76] Korea ASMI2 by BIA, M: ≤32.5%, F: ≤25.7% / /
Kim 2012/2013 [58, 59] Tokyo ASMI3 by BIA < 6.42 kg/m2; BMI < 22.0 kg/m KES < 1.01 Nm/kg GS < 1.22 m/s
Kim 2016 [60] Tokyo SMI by DXA < 5.67 kg/m2 HGS < 17.0 kg GS < 1.0 m/s
Tyrovolas [77] countries from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America ASMI4 by BIA, M: ≤0.93 kg/m2, F: ≤0.57 kg/m2 HGS: (M: < 30 kg, F: < 20 kg) GS: (M: 0.95–0.66
m/s; F:0.08–0.48 m/s)
Fried [78] countries from African American baseline: >10lbs lost unintentionally in prior year HGS: lowest 20% (by gender, body mass index) walking time/15 ft: slowest 20% (by gender, height)
  1. AWGS Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia, EWGSOP European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People, CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, NHANES III Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, M male, F female, ASMI appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI = appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height2[ASM/m2]), ASMI2 = appendicular skeletal muscle mass/weight2*100% [ASM/kg2], ASMI3 appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI = appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height2[ASM/m2]), ASMI4 = [0.244(weight) + 7.8(height) + 6.6(sex)-0.098(age) + race-3.3]/body mass index (ASM/BMI), SMI skeletal muscle index; ASM* = 0.2487(weight) + 0.0483(height)-0.1584(hip circumference) + 0.0732 (grip strength) + 2.5843(sex) + 5.8828, ASM2 appendicular skeletal muscle mass, DXA Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, BIA Bioelectrical impedance analysis, HGS handgrip strength, KES knee extension strength, GS gait speed, 5-STS 5-chair sit to stand test, SPPB Short Physical Performance Battery, TUG Timed Up and Go