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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population according to Mini-Mental State Examination scores

From: Association between change in handgrip strength and cognitive function in Korean adults: a longitudinal panel study

  Men (N = 2999) Women (N = 3697)
Participants MMSE Participants MMSE
N % Mean ± S.D. p-value N % Mean ± S.D. p-value
Change in handgrip strength      0.6874      0.2907
  Same or increased 1196 39.9 26.891 3.397   1673 45.3 25.385 4.798  
  Decreased 1803 60.1 26.846 3.654   2024 54.7 25.253 4.813  
Age (years)      < 0.0001      < 0.0001
  45–54 831 27.7 28.331 2.030   1131 30.6 27.842 2.396  
  55–64 938 31.3 27.527 2.689   1084 29.3 26.522 3.404  
  65–74 874 29.1 26.122 3.492   991 26.8 23.784 4.798  
  ≥75 356 11.9 23.517 5.396   491 13.3 19.904 6.070  
Education level      < 0.0001      < 0.0001
  Elementary school or less 908 30.3 24.816 4.463   2016 54.5 23.321 5.293  
  Middle school 522 17.4 27.080 2.905   635 17.2 27.047 2.981  
  High school 1066 35.5 27.804 2.619   879 23.8 28.023 2.290  
  University or beyond 503 16.8 28.346 2.095   167 4.5 28.503 1.951  
Region      < 0.0001      < 0.0001
  Metropolitan 1240 41.3 27.432 3.045   1580 42.7 26.157 4.196  
  Small or medium cities 991 33.0 26.898 3.499   1206 32.6 25.080 5.055  
  Rural 768 25.6 25.904 4.138   911 24.6 24.157 5.176  
Working status      < 0.0001      0.0198
  Working 1905 63.5 27.569 2.685   1225 33.1 26.581 3.541  
  Non-working 1094 36.5 25.637 4.438   2472 66.9 24.684 5.211  
Household income      < 0.0001      0.0097
  Quartile 1 (low) 600 20.0 24.760 4.534   991 26.8 23.188 5.256  
  Quartile 2 816 27.2 26.799 3.210   987 26.7 25.401 4.440  
  Quartile 3 846 28.2 27.508 2.959   907 24.5 26.114 4.484  
  Quartile 4 (high) 737 24.6 27.910 2.837   812 22.0 26.905 4.043  
Participation in social activities      < 0.0001      < 0.0001
  No 528 17.6 25.011 4.919   819 22.2 22.933 5.708  
  Yes 2471 82.4 27.260 3.045   2878 77.8 25.990 4.283  
Smoking      0.0327      0.7566
  Current 1179 39.3 27.160 3.145   107 2.9 24.019 4.939  
  Former 778 25.9 26.719 3.533   38 1.0 24.395 5.274  
  Never 1042 34.7 26.638 3.960   3552 96.1 25.362 4.792  
Alcohol Intake      0.1605      0.0340
  Yes 1895 63.2 27.104 3.255   709 19.2 26.616 3.625  
  No 1104 36.8 26.452 3.982   2988 80.8 25.004 4.997  
Number of chronic medical conditions      0.1283      0.5450
  None 1539 51.3 27.402 3.153   1672 45.2 26.53 4.14  
  1 895 29.8 26.535 3.730   1134 30.7 24.85 4.83  
  ≥2 565 18.8 25.920 4.010   891 24.1 23.62 5.31  
Number of cohabiting generations      0.0212      0.0541
  Couple 1394 46.5 26.305 3.859   1783 48.2 24.812 4.731  
  Two generations 1266 42.2 27.582 2.855   1415 38.3 26.339 4.443  
  Over two generations 339 11.3 26.484 4.091   499 13.5 24.196 5.492  
BMI      0.0180      < 0.0001
  Underweight 89 3.0 24.944 4.971   114 3.1 23.360 6.044  
  Normal weight 1321 44.0 26.513 3.782   1628 44.0 25.076 5.105  
  Overweight 1012 33.7 27.292 3.290   1024 27.7 25.974 4.278  
  Obesity 544 18.1 27.270 2.917   818 22.1 25.571 4.389  
  Severe obesity 33 1.1 26.273 3.785   113 3.1 22.850 4.881  
Perceived health status      < 0.0001      < 0.0001
  Healthy 1752 58.4 27.744 2.675   1673 45.3 26.993 3.531  
  Average 855 28.5 26.035 3.803   1222 33.1 24.634 4.809  
  Unhealthy 392 13.1 24.742 4.866   802 21.7 22.843 5.710  
  1. BMI body mass index, Underweight: BMI < 18.5, Normal weight: 18.5 ≤ BMI < 23, Overweight: 23 ≤ BMI < 25, Obesity: 25 ≤ BMI < 30, Severe obesity: 30 ≤ BMI