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Table 3 Associations between perceived discrimination and health indicators

From: Perceived discrimination and health outcomes among middle-aged and older adults in India: results of a national survey in 2017–2018

Outcome variables Response format Perceived discrimination Model 1: adjusted odds ratio or exp. (Coef.) (95% CI)a Model 2: adjusted odds ratio, IRR, or exp. (Coef.) (95% CI)b
Mental health
 Low life satisfaction No No 1 Reference 1 Reference
Yes Moderate 2.11 (1.73, 2.58)*** 1.47 (1.28, 1.68)***
Severe 2.48 (2.13, 2.89)*** 1.42 (1.20, 1.67)***
 Cognitive functioning Scale No 1 Reference 1 Reference
Moderate 0.39 (0.28, 0.54)*** 0.60 (0.49, 0.74)***
Severe 0.29 (0.20, 0.42)*** 0.71 (0.55, 0.93)*
 Insomnia symptoms No No 1 Reference 1 Reference
Yes Moderate 1.73 (1.50, 2.00)*** 1.45 (1.25, 1.57)***
Severe 2.15 (1.84, 2.51)*** 1.43 (1.22, 1.69)***
 Depressive symptoms No No 1 Reference 1 Reference
Yes Moderate 1.91 (1.64, 2.22)*** 1.40 (1.18, 1.65)***
Severe 5.02 (4.47, 6.62)*** 4.14 (3.62, 4.74)***
Physical health
 Number of pain conditions Count No 1 Reference 1 Reference
Moderate 1.20 (1.08, 1.32)*** 1.06 (1.00, 1.12)*
Severe 1.36 (1.30, 1.44)*** 1.19 (1.13, 1.26)***
 Number of cardiovascular conditions Count No 1 Reference 1 Reference
Moderate 0.94 (0.87, 1.01) 0.93 (0.87, 1.00)
Severe 1.01 (0.94, 1.09) 0.99 (0.92, 1.06)
 Chronic lung disease No No 1 Reference 1 Reference
Yes Moderate 1.24 (0.97, 1.58) 1.21 (0.93, 1.57)
Severe 1.08 (0.88, 1.31) 1.01 (0.83, 1.23)
 Functional limitationsc No No 1 Reference 1 Reference
Yes Moderate 1.75 (1.53, 2.01)*** 1.55 (1.35, 1.78)***
Severe 1.44 (1.25, 1.65)*** 1.15 (1.00, 1.33)*
Health risk behaviour
 Current tobacco smoking No No 1 Reference 1 Reference
Yes Moderate 1.04 (0.87, 1.26) 1.01 (0.87, 1.16)
Severe 1.29 (1.11, 1.49)*** 1.13 (0.97, 1.33)
 Heavy episodic drinking No No 1 Reference 1 Reference
Yes Moderate 1.29 (0.99, 1.67) 1.31 (1.01, 1.70)*
Severe 2.05 (1.33, 3.15)*** 1.66 (1.25, 2.20)***
 Physical inactivity No No 1 Reference 1 Reference
Yes Moderate 1.06 (0.91, 1.24) 1.06 (0.90, 1.25)
Severe 1.67 (1.44, 1.94)*** 1.61 (1.37, 1.89)***
  1. CI Confidence Interval; ***p < 0.001;**p < 0.01; *p < 0.05; aAdjusted for age group, and sex, bAdjusted for age group, sex, education, marital status, subjective socioeconomic status, area of residence, caste/tribe, social participation, organised religiosity, and all other variables in the table; cDifficulties with two or more Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), IRR Incident Risk Ratio