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Table 2 Distribution of Baseline Characteristics by Depression Trajectory Groups (n, %)

From: Latent class growth modeling of depression and anxiety in older adults: an 8-year follow-up of a population-based study

  Trajectory groups P-value
Low-flat
N = 3641
Low-to-middle
N = 205
Low-to-high
N = 33
High-stable
N = 104
 
Anxiety
Low-flat 3519 (96.7) 162 (79.0) 28 (84.9) 76 (73.1) < 0.0001
Low-to-middle 61 (1.7) 29 (14.2) 3 (9.1) 3 (2.9)  
High-to-low 57 (1.6) 7 (3.4) 2 (6.1) 23 (22.1)  
High-curved 4 (0.11) 7 (3.4) 0 (0.0) 2 (1.9)  
Sex
Male 1619 (44.5) 59 (28.8) 9 (27.3) 27 (26.0) < 0.0001
Female 2022 (55.5) 146 (71.2) 24 (72.7) 77 (74.0)  
Age
65–69 1405 (38.6) 86 (42.0) 11 (33.3) 32 (30.8) 0.009
70–74 1099 (30.2) 73 (35.6) 11 (33.3) 32 (30.8)  
75–79 666 (18.3) 37 (18.1) 8 (24.2) 29 (27.9)  
  ≥ 80 471 (12.9) 9 (4.4) 3 (9.1) 11 (10.6)  
Marital status
Married 1272 (35.0) 70 (34.2) 12 (36.4) 36 (34.6) 0.993
Single/divorced/widowed 2368 (65.0) 135 (65.8) 21 (63.6) 68 (65.4)  
Education
None 728 (20.0) 39 (19.0) 8 (24.2) 24 (23.1) 0.308
Elementary 1551 (42.6) 101 (49.3) 13 (39.4) 40 (38.5)  
Middle/High 1079 (29.6) 55 (26.8) 10 (30.3) 37 (35.6)  
University 283 (7.8) 10 (4.9) 2 (6.1) 3 (2.9)  
Smoking
No 1982 (58.9) 143 (69.8) 22 (66.7) 71 (74.0) 0.0006
Previous 442 (13.1) 12 (5.9) 2 (6.1) 11 (11.5)  
Current 944 (28.0) 50 (24.4) 9 (27.3) 14 (14.6)  
Drinking
No 1323 (39.3) 101 (49.3) 19 (57.6) 52 (54.2) 0.002
Less than twice per week 1507 (44.7) 84 (41.0) 12 (36.4) 37 (38.5)  
2–3 times per week 266 (7.9) 10 (4.9) 0 (0.0) 2 (2.1)  
Almost daily 274 (8.1) 10 (4.9) 2 (6.1) 5 (5.2)  
Residential area
Metro-city 1392 (38.2) 75 (36.6) 14 (42.4) 39 (37.5) 0.920
Not Metro-city 2249 (61.8) 130 (63.4) 19 (57.6) 65 (62.5)  
Housing type
Detached House 2094 (57.5) 119 (58.1) 17 (51.5) 56 (53.9) 0.770
Apartment 512 (14.1) 22 (10.7) 5 (15.2) 17 (16.4)  
Others 1035 (28.4) 64 (31.2) 11 (33.3) 31 (29.8)  
Disability
No 2931 (80.5) 161 (78.5) 26 (79.8) 73 (70.2) 0.068
Yes 710 (19.5) 44 (21.5) 7 (21.2) 31 (29.8)  
Home ownership
Own 2790 (76.6) 159 (77.6) 27 (81.8) 66 (63.5) 0.015
Lease 851 (23.4) 46 (22.4) 6 (18.2) 38 (36.5)  
Living arrangement
Alone 59 (1.48) 1 (0.5) 0 (0.0) 2 (1.9) 0.137
Couple only 2231 (61.3) 145 (70.7) 21 (63.6) 69 (66.4)  
Others 1351 (37.1) 59 (28.8) 12 (36.4) 33 (31.7)  
Walking
None 625 (18.6) 33 (16.1) 5 (15.2) 27 (28.1) 0.044
  ≤ 3 days/week 417 (12.4) 34 (16.6) 6 (18.2) 16 (16.7)  
  > 3 days/week 2328 (69.1) 138 (67.3) 22 (66.7) 53 (55.2)  
Medium/Intensive
Physical activity
  None 2247 (66.7) 134 (65.4) 27 (81.8) 74 (77.1) 0.181
   ≤ 3 days/week 326 (9.7) 21 (10.2) 3 (9.1) 7 (7.3)  
   > 3 days/week 797 (23.7) 50 (24.4) 3 (9.1) 15 (15.6)  
More than 3 chronic diseases a
Yes 3175 (87.2) 198 (96.6) 32 (97.0) 102 (98.1) < 0.0001
No 466 (12.8) 7 (3.4) 1 (3.0) 2 (1.9)  
Economic Activity
No 2278 (62.6) 135 (65.9) 27 (81.8) 82 (78.9) 0.0007
Yes 1363 (37.4) 70 (34.1) 6 (18.2) 22 (21.1)  
Income quantile, percentile
  < 20th 1164 (44.1) 91 (50.8) 15 (45.5) 39 (55.7) 0.100
20 – 40th 603 (22.8) 39 (21.8) 9 (27.3) 15 (21.4)  
40 – 60th 425 (16.1) 32 (17.9) 6 (18.2) 8 (11.4)  
60 – 80th 238 (9.0) 12 (6.7) 3 (9.1) 7 (10.0)  
80 – 100th 210 (8.0) 5 (2.8) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.4)  
  1. aChronic diseases = hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, back pain, cataracts, osteoporosis, and arthritis, loss of hearing or vision