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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of all included studies in the meta-analysis

From: Patients with Parkinson’s disease predict a lower incidence of colorectal cancer

Author Year Country Study design N (case) N (control) subsite SQ adjustment
Guttman [28] 2003 Canada retrospective cohort 15,304 PD 30,608 colon 6 age, sex
OLsen [21] 2005 Denmark retrospective cohort 14,088 PD NR colon +rectum 6 age, sex
Powers [29] 2005 USA Case-control 352 PD 484 colorectal 6 age, ethnicity, education, smoking
Driver [30] 2007 USA prospective cohort 487 PD 487 colorectal 6 age
Fois [22] 2009 UK retrospective cohort 4355 PD 574,860 colon +rectum 7 age, sex, year of first hospital admission, region
Becker [23] 2010 UK retrospective cohort 2993 PD 3003 colorectal 6 age, sex, smoking, body mass index,
Lo [31] 2010 USA retrospective cohort 692 PD 761 colorectal 7 age, sex, ethnicity, education (years), annual income, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index
Sun [14] 2011 Taiwan, China retrospective cohort 4957 PD 19,828 colorectal 6 age, sex
Rugbjerg [24] 2012 Denmark retrospective cohort 20,343 PD 32,360 colorectal 7 age, sex, calendar year
Ong [25] 2014 UK retrospective cohort 219,194 PD 9,015,614 colon +rectum 8 age, sex, calendar year, region of residence, quintile of patients
Wirdefeldt [26] 2014 Sweden retrospective cohort 11,786 PD 58,930 colon +rectum 7 sex, birth year
Lin [15] 2015 Taiwan, China retrospective cohort 62,023 PD 124,046 colorectal 8 age, sex
Peretz [34] 2016 Israel retrospective cohort 7125 PD NR colon +rectum 7 age, sex, chronological year
Boursi [27] 2016 UK Case-control 22,093 cancer 85,833 colorectal 6 Obesity, diabetes, smoking, alcohol consumption, NSAIDs use, hormone replacement therapy, screening colonoscopy
Freedman(1) [33] 2016 USA Case-control 836,947 cancer 142,869 colon +rectum 5 age, sex, selection year
Freedman(2) [32] 2016 Asia Case-control 20,267 cancer 5558 colon 5 age, sex, selection year
Park [35] 2019 Korea retrospective cohort 52,009 PD 260,045 colorectal 8 age, sex, hypertension, DM, hyperlipidemia
  1. Notes: Study quality was judged based on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale,
  2. Abbreviations: N number of studies, NR not reported, SQ score of study quality, RR relative risk, CI confidence intervals