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Table 2 Multivariable associations between potential associated factors and overall frailty (n = 2289)

From: Factors associated with physical, psychological and social frailty among community-dwelling older persons in Europe: a cross-sectional study of Urban Health Centres Europe (UHCE)

  Overall frailty
OR (95%CI) P-value
Age (years) 1.06 (1.04–1.08) < 0.001
Sex (female vs. male) 2.20 (1.75–2.76) < 0.001
Country   < 0.001
 Spain vs. the Netherlands 1.93 (1.34–2.78) < 0.001
 Greece vs. the Netherlands 4.71 (3.11–7.13) < 0.001
 Croatia vs. the Netherlands 4.24 (2.94–6.12) < 0.001
 United Kingdom vs. the Netherlands 1.19 (0.85–1.63) 0.323
Migration background (yes vs. no) 0.90 (0.61–1.32) 0.588
Education level   0.027
 Secondary or equivalent vs. primary or less 1.58 (1.05–2.37) 0.029
 Tertiary or higher vs. primary or less 1.10 (0.76–1.59) 0.631
Household composition (living alone vs. living with others) 2.11 (1.68–2.66) < 0.001
Alcohol risk (yes vs. no) 0.76 (0.61–0.96) 0.023
Physical activity (once a week or less vs. more than once a week) 3.71 (2.88–4.77) < 0.001
Smoking (yes vs. no) 1.37(0.93–2.01) 0.113
Multi-morbidity (yes vs. no) 2.54 (1.69–3.81) < 0.001
Medication risk (MRQ-10; score) 1.33 (1.24–1.42) < 0.001
Malnutrition (SNAQ-65+; yes vs. no) 3.06 (2.22–4.22) < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, MRQ-10 10 items of the Medication risk questionnaire, SNAQ-65+ Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire 65 +
  2. Significant ORs and P-values (< 0.05) in bold
  3. Multivariable model were used to analysis the associations between potential associated factors and overall frailty. All factors (e.g. demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors and health indicators) were included in one model. Nagelkerke R12 = 0.37