Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of community-dwelling older persons of the Urban Health Centres Europe for total study sample (n = 2289) and according to overall frailty

From: Factors associated with physical, psychological and social frailty among community-dwelling older persons in Europe: a cross-sectional study of Urban Health Centres Europe (UHCE)

  Total (n = 2289) Frailty
No (n = 1022, 44.6%) Yes (n = 1267, 55.4%) P-value
Age (years) 79.7 ± 5.7 78.8 ± 5.4 80.5 ± 5.7 < 0.001a
Sex, female 1379(60.4%) 503(49.3%) 876 (69.4%) < 0.001b
Country
 Spain 500 (21.8%) 252 (24.7%) 248 (19.6%) < 0.001b
 Greece 363 (15.9%) 133 (13.0%) 230 (18.2%)
 Croatia 490 (21.4%) 126 (12.3%) 364 (28.7%)
 The Netherlands 373 (16.3%) 213 (20.8%) 160 (12.6%)
 United Kingdom 563 (24.6%) 298 (29.2%) 265 (20.9%)
Migration background, yes 194 (8.50%) 81 (7.90%) 113 (8.90%) 0.396b
Education level
 Primary or less 621 (27.5%) 245 (24.3%) 376 (30.0%) < 0.001b
 Secondary or equivalent 1430 (63.2%) 646 (64.0%) 784 (62.6%)
 Tertiary or higher 211 (9.30%) 119 (11.8%) 92 (7.30%)
Household composition, living alone 876 (38.4%) 288 (28.3%) 588 (46.6%) < 0.001b
Alcohol risk, yes 582 (26.8%) 340 (34.6%) 242 (20.3%) < 0.001b
Physical activity
 More than once a week 1628 (71.8%) 883 (87.2%) 745 (59.4%) < 0.001b
 Once a week or less 640 (28.2%) 130(12.8%) 510(40.6%)
Smoking, yes 175 (7.70%) 74 (7.30%) 101 (8.00%) 0.528b
Multi-morbidity, yes 2083(91.1%) 868 (85.1%) 1215 (95.9) < 0.001b
Medication risk (MRQ-10; score) 4.40 ± 1.64 4.06 ± 1.51 4.67 ± 1.68 < 0.001b
Malnutrition (SNAQ-65+), yes 356 (15.6) 76 (7.5%) 280 (22.3%) < 0.001 b
  1. Presented as mean ± SD or N (%); Significant P-values (< 0.05) in bold
  2. Missing items: Age = 2; Sex =5; Education level = 27; Household composition =7; Alcohol risk =116; Physical activity =21; Smoking =5; Multi-morbidity =2; Medication risk = 26; Malnutrition = 12
  3. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, MRQ-10 10 items of the Medication risk questionnaire, SNAQ-65+, Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire 65 +
  4. a P-values based on independent T test
  5. b P-values based on chi-square test